The physical condition of irritable bowel syndrome yeah I mean it’s a condition that a huge drain on the economy cost.
the economy was 40 million pounds a year it says it’s up there with low back pain as a cause of major absenteeism from.
work really I just think it’s so common well we don’t know the cause you know I mean the of the sufferers about 70% are.
women we don’t know why we don’t there’s no test for it you know we’re not sure of the cause we do know that stress can.
trigger its certain disorders of immune system can’t certain foods may trigger it in some patients. I think I should.
just run through the symptoms and what you get with IBS and first of all abdominal pain and cramps which can be very.
troublesome it’s changing you about how about usually diarrhea but sometimes constipation bloating and swelling you know.
the women the skirts don’t fit they’re six months pregnant one day with wind next day the normal excessive winds don’t.
belong to be very embarrassing the urgency xx about and it can be you’ve got to get there straight away otherwise it’s.
an accident and then feeling the oven completely emptied your bowels afterward the frustrating thing is from a doctor’s.
point of view you’re diagnosing it on symptoms. We haven’t got a test and one thing I do go on a bit about is if you.
have IBS and you’re having treatment and it’s not helping your symptoms you may well have celiac disease which causes.
similar same things I know it see yeah as well I’m a walking mother conceive your patient if you symptoms on being.
helped ask for a Celia test when it can test for that yeah we can okay and there’s also but we’re with IBS does isn’t it.
very interesting research just came out recently on a probiotic being used for IBS though this is independent research.
NHS funded your commercial interest and there was some King’s College Hospital in London with a looked at a probiotic so.
this is like these probiotic drinks that you can all go detailing he’s always complain about this because a full of.
sugar to make them taste well that’s right but listen this is very different there’s no other product like this with so.
thus improving this long taste nice then it may not it may not it doesn’t smell nice I’ll tell you that much right.
basically well I mean half an egg what are they couple you a ten billion back to you but things these bacteria are.
resistant the gastric acid which is like our acid and yes where’s the other probiotics will be affected by gastric acid.
so all the bacteria gets through there are four types of friendly bacteria their tongue the bad bacteria and the.
research on IBS patients showed that 60% of them had improvement of the symptoms and improved in the quality of life.
solution is available now that’s available area what does this do when we through this tone this puts nice things in our.
tumbler yeah thoughtful i.e. why do you drink that so good night it’s quite lemony sure there’s anaemia just come in.
reviewer sing in the praise he says this part amazing not only has my IBS symptoms gone I have also been given it to my.
dogs both dogs have issues in this area and it’s been a godsend for all of us well I’m going fruit flavour that ones.
they do different flavours yes I believe I obviously got the dogs you’re I’m a little bit because I thought very nice it.
was a job and lemon yeah it was like yeah I’m in chela I didn’t mind I does you good yeah and what would you just wanted.
those little glasses a day yes yeah they recommend in the study they said take it for three months to get the real full.
long-term effects that’s a good bacteria okay and we’ll put details of where you can get that on the website thank Chris.
thank you doctor thank you very much indeed the microbiome is basically all the microorganisms that live on in in our.
body so fungus bacteria viruses other organisms that live with us and go through life with us and the microbiome.
recently has become really exciting because we’ve realized that it’s not just that these organisms are passive.
passengers on our body and they’re not just things that cause disease they’re things that actually help us interact with.
us and may help us develop who we are and really how our health is overall it turns out that our microbiome is in flux.
all the time and we can help it help mould it to give us the best health that we can have five tips to keep the.
microbiome healthy particularly your gut microbiota so first healthy diet and this is lots of fruits and vegetables low.
animal fats low animal products to exercise keeping your body healthy will help keep your gut healthy and their.
microbiome healthy 3 reducing your stress if you can we know that stress is going to negatively impact your microbiome.
and you can have reductions of some of the good bacteria that you want for if you can stay away from antibiotics do so.
only take antibiotics when you have an infection that really needs to be treated with antibiotics because they can.
reduce the diversity of your microbiome and that can be a problem in health and finally people asked about probiotics.
prebiotics these are things that may be helpful in particular diseases or disorders but if you’re perfectly healthy and.
you’re doing all those other four things you probably don’t need to add it on just because use them only if you need to.
You in fact it’s thought that the bacteria in our stomach is the key to everything from heart disease obesity digestive.
problems colitis and IBS it’s thought that around 12 million people suffer from IBS which is irritable bowel syndrome.
and around 300,000 suffer from IBD which is inflammatory bowel disease and of course these conditions can be severely.
debilitating on people’s daily lives so why is this such an issue and has it always been thus I met Barry Smith but the.
Farnum headquarters are simple if he’s something of an expert as you’ll find out later on bacteria I asked him why are.
we so all depleted in our good bacteria well since 1941 half the Western world’s violence gone and that’s gone because.
of overuse of antibiotics an amazing technology that’s been squandered and needs to be retained as much as we can now.
through caesarean elections at birth through sterile living poor eating habits sterile eating habits style work.
environments not enough exercise the seabed lifestyle and that’s basically it’s common knowledge now that about half of.
the human bomb has been lost and so simply what we’re doing is we’re putting a little tiny bit back but if you can put a.
little tiny bit back but this actually starting to change the balance then that allows a bigger blue we’re all aware of.
the probiotics the many different supplements available on the high street but is this the most effective way to.
repopulate the gut one concern is that our stomach acids actually hamper any attempts to pass through and survive Barry.
explains how he thinks it needs to work so right it must arrive in the right number and I do the act and on a perfect.
substrate so it’s fed it then has to survive the pH of the stomach and I think this is why medics don’t really very much.
believe in the probiotic scenario because they know what a wonderful gatekeeper the stomach is the stomach will manage.
it will manage most bacteria so that it does not pass through and then once if you manage to check the stomach which is.
what we do because of the water delivery system and you can come into the small intestine and of course you then can.
multiply up happily and get on with the job by the time you get to the large intestine your very large numbers by that.
time we’re going to a maelstrom of bacteria so you have to be in the numbers to be able to establish Berry’s company.
produced sim proof a unique multi strain probiotic liquid drink that’s proven to help manage the symptoms of IBS.
following a clinical trial at King’s College Hospital as simper is a liquid non-dairy formulation it works differently.
it doesn’t trigger digestion so it can bypass the stomach and get to the intestines quickly where it needs to work I.
asked Barry about the different strains of bacteria for bacteria we’ve got acidophilus we’ve got rhamnoses we’ve got a.
planetarium and we’ve got a caesium and how did the bacteria continue to do their work then how long have to sort of.
leave it there for them to populate or whatever it is they have to do well we give them a huge amount of food from an.
extract of barley within colon and by this time the bacteria brought it down to a nice low pH so it’s stable and then.
that’s stable for a period of four months and the bacteria have an amount of food that they can take along when we have.
them sort of just about ticking over and then when they find themselves in the small intestine suddenly there’s happy.
days party time because they’re exactly the right temperature with huge amounts of food hardly any bacterial competition.
because the stock is very good at destroying the bacteria it goes in and you end up establishing and generating a new.
balloon within the digestive tract so what about safety and quality control in dealing with live bacteria so the way.
that we do that is we finish our process and then we out police the Quality Assurance and we send it to a GMP lab they.
verify that it is exactly those bacteria it’s tested independently we don’t it gets locked down until such time as we.
have clearance back so they test that it’s exactly those bacteria that there are zero contaminants that it’s the pH.
reclaim and if it’s anywhere out of parameter is a reject I was hugely impressed by Barry Smith and my visit to simply.
of headquarters this is a company that are really passionate about creating something that works they have an excellent.
customer service team as well so that you can discuss any symptoms that you may be experiencing but it’s not a quick fix.
independent research shows that it can take a good long time to sort out bacteria and this is the reason why sim probe.
have introduced their 12 week program you can buy it in some health shops or you can buy it online simply Drops more and.
more of us are choosing to include probiotics in our daily diets but what goes into them and how do they work most.
of the probiotics you can buy today are either dairy based such as yogurts and milk drinks which contain only a.
single type of probiotic and have to be bought fresh each week because they have a short shelf life or capsules that.
although contain multiple varieties of freeze-dried probiotic bacteria only work once slowly reactivated through.
rehydration a tricky process in the hostile environment of your stomach for those bacteria that have already been.
weakened or even destroyed during the freeze drying process in fact when you swallow either of these types of.
products your body treats them as a food the yoghurt or capsule reaches your stomach where you produce digestive.
juices and enzymes to break them down this is not great for the probiotic bacteria as these acids and enzymes can.
also break them down before they get a chance to reach the lower parts of your digestive system where you need them to.
be for them to work with this in mind we set out to produce a better probiotic combining the best of science with all.
the good things Nature has to offer the result is a completely new breakthrough probiotic drink called sim proved.
unlike other probiotics sim proof contains live activated bacteria just like the yogurt drinks but it also contains.
multiple varieties of probiotic like the capsules the live activated probiotic bacteria in sin probe are effective.
the moment it’s swallowed and because sin prove is a drink it passes straight through the hostile environment of your.
stomach safely to the lower parts of your digestive system where the probiotics can get to work sim proof is based on.
an extract of germinated barley to which we add four varieties of probiotic bacteria the extract providing a perfect.
food for the bacteria to thrive you can keeps improving your fridge for up to 5 months there are no artificial.
colours flavours or sweeteners and simp roof is lactose free now adding a probiotic to your diet couldn’t be easier.
and when you drinks improve your giving probiotics the best possible chance of working for you sim prove combining.
the best of science and nature right well thank you anyway rich for the introduction so as rich said I’m going to try.
and inform you a little bit about what goes on in your gut and in particular all the microbes that live in your gut and.
why they’re so important for your health and why under some conditions they can actually cause quite severe disease so.
there’s been a significant shift in our understanding of what causes disease and I think you know traditionally we’ve.
always thought of its to do with who we are our genes and then the things we do as we go through life so lifestyle and.
what we eat and what we get exposed to in the environment and it’s those two that come together to either keep us.
healthy or to cause disease but what’s apparent now is that in the middle of this and that may be involved in.
interpreting a lot of these things that we do and eat our gut microbes and they’re a direct link to our genetic material.
and they can in turn influence how we react and respond to things in the environment and how they can keep us healthy or.
not and really the understanding of gut microbes has really taken a fantastic leap since around 2000 this graph here.
shows the number of scientific articles that have been published about gut microbes and you see they really started to.
take off here around 2002 and that’s because of Technology so before 2002 the only way we could really identify and.
characterize I’ve got microbes was by what we could culture on a petri dish and since we now know that about 80 percent.
of our gut microbes can’t be cultured that really isn’t a good representation of what’s in our gut but then with the.
advent of gene sequencing technology we can now identify microbes according to their genetic blueprint and what’s.
apparent is that different types of bacteria have a unique genetic fingerprint so if we can identify the fingerprint we.
can say whether or not they’re present or absent and this as I said has led to this huge explosion in this area of.
research we can now identify microbes we can culture and so this has led to massive interest in gut microbes and some of.
these are very recent so the Daily Mail thinks that healthy gut bacteria might be linked to anxiety and then we’ve got.
others that linking gut brain connection autism probiotics as a means of treating diseases and then a couple of books.
this one has just come out and those of you in the Institute will notice the significance of broccoli on the front as.
the Institute is responsible for generating strains of broccoli that have lots of nutrients good beneficial nutrients in.
them but really the message here is that what we eat influences our microbes which in turn can influence our brain.
function and keeping it normal but as always we have to be aware of the hype okay so whenever we read these articles we.
need to have a couple of things in mind that allow us to determine whether or not you know there’s some factual basis to.
it or whether it’s hype and these are some of the questions that I would say you need to ask so the obvious one is well.
so what do these differences they’re detected do they really matter are the changes a cause or a consequence of the.
disease and of course we want to know how it works what’s the mechanism so is there anything in this article that allows.
us to understand how it actually works and then a lot of experiments are carried out on animals because we can’t do many.
interventions in humans for ethical reasons so another arenas question is well is a mouse a small human no it isn’t so.
we’ve got to bear that in mind and then obviously we’ve got to think all is there something else they haven’t looked at.
which could explain what they’re describing so behaviour in lifestyle are two important things so I’m going to try and.
sort of touch on some of these things in the rest of my talk so this is what I’m going to cover I think I need to.
introduce the gut to you I’ll talk a little bit about microbes some interesting facts a little bit of trivia and then.
how gut microbes may play a role in determining what we eat and what the consequences of what we are for our health.
wellbeing and then how we actually might manipulate they’ve got microbes to improve or restore our health so that’s what.
I call lawn care right start with so did the guts mouth to the anus it’s a long tube here’s a picture taken with an.
endoscope and you can see it’s not as smooth tube it’s got these ridges to it the muscles this is what allows food to be.
propelled through the guts but it’s not a smooth chew it has lots of finger like projections that we call villi that.
stick into the lumen to capture nutrients and absorb them so the tube is quite long it’s like nine meters from mouth to.
anus and somebody has taken the trouble trying to calculate what the surface area of all these villi are and the outcome.
of that is it’s probably about the size of a badminton court so it’s an incredibly large area and it has to be large in.
order to take up the nutrients that are in your diet to keep you healthy and then we also consider the process of.
digestion and the gut is in fact a massive bioreactor so we take in foods plant material for examples and they’ve broken.
down first of all in the small intestine here where the small simple sugars are absorbed and then the larger more.
complex plant material that we eat in our diet passes through into the large bowel or the colon where it’s fermented and.
it’s fermented by the bacteria that live in the colon and the end product of all of this is something called short chain.
fatty acids which are very important because they can provide about 5 to 15 percent of our daily energy requirements in.
some animals it’s up to 30% so this has to be a very efficient process to keep us alive basically and the enzymes that.
are responsible the proteins that digest these food material and the polysaccharides now we only have about 20 genes in.
our whole genome that will allow that encode proteins we’ll break down these carbohydrates but one bacterial species.
this one in particular Bacteroides has 260 and you think there are thousand species so that’s a vast number of proteins.
that can digest the digest our food so the bacteria that live in our colon are ideally suited for processing our food.
and extracting the maximum level of nutrients from them so it’s a bioreactor a little bit about the microbes so the gut.
is packed full of microbes there is no space that endoscope image I showed you they’ve displaced and rinsed out all the.
bacteria normally that will be jam-packed with bacteria most of them are floating free in lumen but a large number of.
them actually make physical contact with the cells that line our gut so there’s actually some intimate Association of.
these microbes with our gut and there are two terms that we you may come across we use to describe these microbes the.
microbiota which is to describe all the microorganisms that live in the gut and there’s the microbiome and that’s all.
the microbes plus all their genes combined so microbiota microbiome – as you may have come across in a lot of these.
articles but individually bacteria incredibly small so this is a head of a pen under an electron microscope and each of.
these orange dots represents one bacterial cell so you can see that you can get lots of bacteria on the top on the tip.
of a pin they’re incredibly small but well though they’re small they make up for that in their vast numbers so we have.
about 10 trillion cells in our body but we actually have ten times that number of bacteria in our body and so on this.
scale here we have enough cells it would fill half of one of our legs all the rest of the body will be filled up with.
microbes bacteria and then if we think about all the DNA that we have oh this is an interesting quote sorry I forgot.
about this this ninja just give you an idea of the scope and scale of the numbers here of bugs a bacteria in our colon.
so just one linear centimetre contains more bacteria than all the humans that have ever been born it’s a vast number of.
microbes and then the DNA elements this is the big toe okay and that represents the DNA in our body that is actually.
ours okay so everything else more than 99% of the DNA is bacterial DNA so you know just think about that that’s actually.
quite amazing really so we are carrying around a lot of DNA but very little of it is our own okay now this is the.
audience participation bit some trivia how much do you think all the microbes in our body way don’t be shy PhD students.
at the back come on how much what that’s not conferring su nope anybody else kilogram closer to kilograms two to three.
kilograms a lot right a couple of bags sugar and if you put it in a volume size about one and a half liters and there’s.
about a thousand different species thousand different types packed in there and this is what they need to keep them.
healthy about 50 to 65 grams of these things which are sugars to keep them healthy so that amount is needed every day.
just to keep your microbes healthy and then you’ve got all the other things that you need to keep your body healthy and.
so a product of all this metabolism is gas so how much do you think we expel every day and this is everybody so it’s not.
just old men and teenagers everybody in this room expelled gas how much do you think we expel every day how many litres.
how many five that’s a bit high anybody else one two four that’s a lot and of course at the end of all this we have.
waste so 60% of your stool is made up of bacteria live and dead okay so that’s trivia interesting thing just before you.
have your meal you can run through some of these facts and figures but they are very important and we know they’re very.
important because of animals that we can keep germ-free so these are animals that have never been exposed to any.
microbes they’re sterile and when we examine these animals they’re clearly compromised they’re deficient so they have.
nutritional deficiencies they don’t grow but interesting they live longer so if you want to live longer don’t eat that’s.
the bottom line they have a defective gut so their gut is not poor properly formed so it’s leaky and their immune system.
is very poorly developed so they’re very susceptible to infections and in fact if you introduce a pathogen to these.
animals it can kill them very quickly because they have no protection no immunity and also their development is affected.
as well so clearly we’re already starting now to move into the gut brain so that there are really poor animals very sick.
so the microbiota and the Mike Michaels are very important so your microbiota is unique to you it’s your identity it’s.
like your fingerprint your microbes are unique to you however the microbes you have are shared with other family members.
so there’s some commonality there and interestingly looking at the microbiota of monozygotic and dizygotic that side.
tentacle non identical twins you know there’s no difference so even if you’re an identical twin you’ll have similar.
differences in your microbiota to non identical twins so what does that mean well it means that genes are important who.
you are is important but also the nurture the nature the nurturing is also important in shaping the microbes but we now.
know that we all have a core microbiota so there’s about 57 species of bacteria that we all share and there are two.
types that predominate in all of us here and not unsurprisingly these are concerned because they perform important.
functions such as ones here degradation of carbohydrates are degrading our plant material we eat they also provide these.
fatty acids that we need to keep us alive every day and also amino acids and vitamins which we can’t produce but our gut.
bacteria can so it’s not surprising there’s a core that all of us need to keep us healthy but then everything else all.
the other 800 of 2,000 species are all unique to us so where do they come from well your parents in particular your.
mother so if you think you have bad bacteria you can blame your parents fully justified okay now originally it was.
thought that we were born sterile but that’s changing slightly is now evidence that we can in fact babies do get exposed.
in the womb to bacteria that the mother has and that can be through the placenta and also by other routes but by far the.
biggest source or time point at which you get exposed to microbes is soon after birth because if you believe we are born.
still then the bacteria can colonize very quickly so the first few months after birth you’re rapidly being colonized by.
bacteria the types of bacteria depend on the delivery so if it’s vaginal delivery then most of the microbes that will.
colonize the baby will come from the mother if it’s a C-section then the bacteria actually come from the people in the.
operating theatre handling the baby and most of those will be skin type bacteria and that’s important because there are.
now evidence that links later onset of various diseases and disorders back to whether or not you are vaginally born or.
from a C-section and the types of microbes that initially colonize the body other things that will impact on the types.
of microbes that will colonize this infant are delivery so it’s a normal birth or is it just require intensive care the.
age at birth is also important is it a full-term birth or preterm birth and hygiene obviously where you’re born the home.
versus the hospital at very different population of microbes that can colonize the infant and then after that things.
that will impact and cause alterations in the microbes are antibiotics and again it depends on how many what types and.
for how long and also very important is nutrition whether or not the infant’s breast or bottle fed and again the breast.
milk contains lots of ingredients including microbes which can colonize that baby and keep them healthy but as we go.
older we get exposed to micro some other sources and by different routes so via the nose and lungs we breathe microbes.
in the mouth and the gut obviously the things we eat and through the skin and these are the sources so water and the.
food we eat will contain microbes we have pets if we live in a farm we’re getting exposed to microbes from the animals.
that we live with where we live do we live in the country or do we live in the city the population of microbes again are.
very different and then the type of accommodation or the dwelling that you live in you know is it single dwelling is it.
multi-dwelling all these people are contributing microbes that will you’ll be exposed to and then are you indoors or.
outdoors are you active are you inactive are you an Xbox fan or are you out playing football these things will all.
expose different types of microbes all of these are important because beyond three years of age your microbiota is.
pretty much set for life so the early years of life are critical for the development of a healthy microbiota however.
there are cultural things and social things that will also impact on the types of microbes that that populate us now.
here’s a fact most you probably didn’t know okay interesting one to experiment on so intimacy and you know it’s across.
the animal kingdom different types of interests me transfer of microbes grooming it’s another one nurturing food sharing.
right we often sit down at the table and eat together and we can be sharing food it’s a good way of transferring.
microbes and then there’s something that’s slightly less you know Pleasant but animals do transfer microbes to their.
offspring via this route by regurgitation of food and transfer food as well as microbes so the message here is if you.
have some good bacteria you need to share it because there are some of us poor less fortunate people scientists for one.
right I mean my wife is very fond of telling me I have very little culture so maybe my culture is my bacteria so share.
your good bacteria if you have them right so we have our microbiota we’ve been exposed we’ve got a stable population but.
it’s not the end of the story they do change and here we’ve got a representation of aging so here you can see these.
circles the different colours represent different types of microbes as we age you can see the colours change as the.
populations change and there are some differences between formula-fed and breastfed babies transition to solid food is a.
big one in terms of shifts in microbial populations and then you can see as we age there is an also shift as well in the.
population ageing has an impact in itself but one of the most striking impacts is through antibiotic treatment and this.
slide just illustrates the impact of antibiotic to antibiotics to treat Clostridium difficile which is a severe.
infection that is often acquired in hospital so as a result of the outgrowth of this bacteria we get sick so we.
administered vancomycin or metronidazole and what you can see is the diversity the number of bacteria we have in our gut.
is drastically reduced because the antibiotics have killed them all but it’s also killed off Clostridium difficile which.
is a good thing but you know there’s a consequence of this in that we’ve wiped out a lot of our good bacteria so too.
many antibiotics for too long have a very profound and can be a long-lived effect on our microbiota so antibiotics could.
be described as a man-made catastrophe however most of the antibiotics that are used are used in agriculture and in farm.
animals in particular to check infection and solar 8 growth about 19,000 tons of antibiotics are used in agriculture.
every year and of course Antipodes get excreted by animals and humans as well so they can contaminate streams and rivers.
and then get back into the food chain and also giving antibiotics or children has its consequences as well so in the.
u.s. by 2 years of age most children had at least three courses of antibiotics I mean a phenomenal number of doses of.
antibiotics given out in the US and what this does is it drives bacteria to become resistant and this is serious okay so.
this particular organism here mars now is resistant to most the antibiotics that we have in the pharmacy and more than.
19,000 people here in the US are killed which is much higher than number of people dying from AIDS I don’t know if you.
just seen on the news today but there’s a UK government review group is recommended the pharmaceutical and it’s invest.
two billion dollars in developing new antibiotics there’s a real need for this but one of the causes that we administer.
too many antibiotics we take too many antibiotics it leads to resistance cautionary tale the other side of the story is.
that gut microbes can actually work on drugs rather than been affected by drugs they can also work on drugs the thing to.
bear in mind is that the vast majority of drugs we take are given orally and so the microbes in the gut can actually.
alter the drugs they can alter their structure they can produce factors that interfere with the drugs and they can alter.
how the body reacts to the drugs and here are some examples so the bad ones are these drugs here which are painkillers.
anti-cancer drugs used to control high blood pressure in certain individuals that have certain populations of microbes.
administering of these drugs will lead to increased toxicity and we some antibiotic as well as a similar story well.
there’s a good side to this as well in that got microbes can process drugs to make them more active more efficacious.
such as this antibiotic here and this anti-inflammatory drug so what this means is that how you react to a drug can.
depend on the type of microbes you have in your gut and one of the things that medicine is heading towards perhaps is.
being able to administer or prescribe you a drug based on the population of microbes in your gut because there’s no.
point in giving you a drug that your microbes will make toxic you want microbes to actually help the drugs become better.
for you more efficacious so this is what’s been called personalized medicine the drugs will be given to you because you.
have been determined to respond best to those drugs so then that brings me to really the the meat of my talk here in a.
way and this is what I’m going to try and persuade you of that your gut microbes can now influence what you eat when you.
eat and what happens when you do eat and so I formulated this hypothesis that gut microbes influence their hosts food.
choices and I sort of put up three predictions in order to prove the hypothesis could be correct the first one is that.
the microbes you have in your gut is a consequence of the food that you eat and how you behave in the environment so.
this interesting so it’s not a map of the galaxies it’s actually the results of screening them the micro biomes in a.
lots of different animals and this is sort of a zoo collection each dot represents similar microbiota in populations of.
animals and the lines of separation here indicate how similar or related they are to other micro biomes and other.
animals so we’ve got these sequences we know all the microbes and this is how they all cluster so you can see different.
clusters so horses and rhinos are up here in their own little cluster ruminants such as sheep and cows make their own.
cluster elephants are their own little grouping up here and then we have the carnivores for the lions and bears again.
they’re a different cluster in red and then we have leaf eating monkey serve vegetarian monkeys and pigs and then the.
other primates humans include we’re here so we’re separate from the leaf eating monkeys so what does this mean well it.
means that who we are and what we eat determines heavily influences the microbes that populate our gut and that’s.
reinforced by this study in looking at the microbes that are present in the gut of people that live in Burkina Faso in.
Africa that have a rural diet primarily vegetarian based diet and Europeans and this is actually Italians have a Western.
diet you can see just looking at the colours they’re very different ok and what’s interesting is if that people in.
Africa migrated to Europe to Italy and then adopt the Western they lose this and become this distribution of microbes so.
they haven’t changed terms their genes or anything all they’ve done is that diets changed and it’s causes profound shift.
in the microbes so the diet really is a driving force in making up the microbes that you have in your gut there’s.
another example this is a Burmese python so they go through periods of fasting and then feasting just looking at three.
different types of bacteria in the fasting state you can see very low levels but if they’re given a meal you know within.
half an hour you can see these striking chips and expansions and increases in certain types of bacteria and these will.
eventually stabilize and then hours of the animal goes back into a fasting state they will decline again so fasting.
reduces the overall diversity and then feasting expands the diversity in response to diet it’s a quite striking.
so–that’s diet stress is another thing we have to cope with in our environment and this is some evidence that links.
stress impacting on our gut microbes so noradrenaline norepinephrine and effort in which all polyp adrenaline are.
produced in response to stress and that can have a direct effect on the bacteria that live in our gut and it can cause.
the outgrowth the particular types of bacteria so here for example ten thousand fold increasing growth in response to.
Adrenaline’s produce under stress and surgery is a stress and this bacteria here rapidly expands following surgery and.
if it’s not contained then it can cause sepsis and mice that get exposed to a type of stress rapidly change their.
microbial populations and that’s just shown here so these are normal animals in most the bacteria little circular shapes.
but then under food deprivation which is a form of stress you know they rapidly changed the rod-shaped bacteria and that.
was observed over 40 years ago so we’ve known for a while that stress is a major factor and then what’s interesting is.
that probiotic bacteria that are present in some of these health foods is well for Morrison’s and this is Acteme they.
contain bacteria that produce a neurotransmitter called Gaba and gammas normally producing the body what it does is it.
dampens down excitable neurons so it relaxes you so and this is being used by the pharmaceutical industry to develop.
mimics of gamma so they can overstimulate these receptors to make you even more relaxed and in fact even knock you out.
because anaesthetics can work by mimicking the Gaba that is produced by these bacteria so benzodiazepines alcohol right.
we all feel nice and relaxed after a glass of wine or a bottle of beer well you know one of the ways that comes out.
about is that they’re stimulating these receptors that gut bacteria can do as well so the gut bacteria can already you.
know hopefully take us from a stressful state to a relaxed straight state and so one of the other things i wanted to.
highlight here was this obesity lots of evidence in the literature now and in the newspapers that changed in our gut.
microbes to make come acres of obese so gut microbes and obesity so very this is a very interesting experiment probably.
the best experiment that demonstrates how microbes can influence whether or not we are be so lean so here we have.
identical twins but one of the twins is obese and one is lean so we’ve taken the stool sample from each of these.
extracted the bacteria what we’ve done is we put them into mice the mice are then put on a regular diet low-fat.
high-carbohydrate I mean low-fat high-fibre diet the ones that got the mic micros and the obese twin become obese but.
the mice that got the microbes from the lean twin stay lean so that’s a direct call all link okay so that’s not really.
height that’s a bit more close to fact so of course it’s my slits not humans but this is the best evidence we have to.
date that shows the direct causal link between our gut microbes influencing whether or not we stay lean or whether.
become obese and then this was in the Sunday Times this week this was from a study carried out by Tim spectra at King’s.
College London and he fed his son I don’t know if his son was a willing volunteer a high fat diet for 10 days Big Macs.
and lots of coke and then he was taking stool samples before an art of it the 10-day diet and what happened what he.
showed was that first of all is a reduction in nutrients because he’s now eating this very processed refined foods there.
was a loss in number he’s got microbes but he gained two kilos in weight in just 10 days so the interpretation of this.
is that highly processed foods present in Big Macs containing grease are toxic to certain microbes and this leads to a.
loss of diversity we’re losing microbes because of this and if you want to know more this individual has produced his.
book I had nothing to do with it so I’m not doing buy it or anything but if you want to know more these books here so.
loss of diversity is a recurring theme and in fact I’ve already said in aging we have this loss of diversity we lose.
richness we lose microbes the same in obesity and it’s the same in other disease in flicks inflammatory bowel disease.
and Crohn’s disease so the loss of diversity and types of Micra 7 I got is not good it can have quite profound health.
effects and so it’s not just got diseases all of these diseases shown here are linked by a common theme in a change or.
shift in the population of microbes in the gut and generally that shift means less diversity interestingly quite a few.
are linked with diseases of central nervous system nearly generative diseases the heart the liver fat and rheumatoid.
arthritis there’s lots and this is a lot of complete list by any means so obviously well is there one microbe or one.
population of microbes that can cause these diseases so it’s like looking for Waldo found him yeah there is the only.
problem is there are lots of Waldo’s and so it’s probably not one microbe it’s the combination of microbes that when.
they get together you know it’s a bit like a gang of teenagers you know they could be rowdy or it can be miserable and.
anti-social so it’s the population when they come together that they causes or is probably responsible for the effects.
on our health it’s not one it’s probably lots okay so moving on to the predictions we’re now at the second one so gut.
bacteria can by influencing how our body works influence our appetite and food preferences so I’m sure this is a.
familiar scenario for many of you know our mind says no take the healthy option but there’s something inside of us and I.
really like that piece of cake okay and it may be that gut feeling you know I really am hungry for a piece of pie rather.
than an apple so what is the evidence that normal gut microbes can influence brain development and behaviours that’s.
what we’re talking about brain development behaviour so this is next this is a summary of an experiment carried out a.
few years ago looking at our germ-free mice again these are sterile Mice and mice that have populations got microbes.
this here shows the expression of an anxiety related gene so the yellow identifies high levels in the brains of these.
mice that have got microbes but very little expression in germ-free mice and this maze here is a measurement of how.
curious adventurous mice are so if they’re cautious timid they’ll spend most of their time in the enclosed section away.
from the light but if they’re adventurous like this one you know they’ll be on the open arms so what this study showed.
was that gut microbes can affect normal brain development and make these mice more curious I’m sorry wrong way and.
perhaps more creative and trying to escape so it’s this fear extinction you have got microbes you become a little bit.
more cautious reticent a little bit more anxious if you don’t have got microbes you know it’s the Great Escape you’re.
looking for ways out more striking experiments this one shown here so we’ve got two strains of mice what we’ll call.
timid and adventurous so they’ve got microbes of anything to do with why these animals are timid or adventurous and what.
we did so not well we did this group in Canada did was they took the stool from the timid Mouse isolated the microbes.
and put it into an adventurous Mouse and that Mouse became timid the other way around they took the microbes from an.
adventurous Mouse put it into a timid Mouse and these are germ-free mice so they’re an empty vessel that you can put the.
microbes into and they became now adventurous so this is a direct causal link again showing the gut microbes can.
influence the behaviour of mice at least now is this translatable to humans I can see probably some people in you always.
thinking maybe I could give this to my husband yeah would he still be a grumpy old man if I gave him some microbes and.
would you know if my teenage boy had some microbes form you know somebody maybe they become bit more outgoing bit more.
social maybe no maybe a few years from now maybe I’ll have that but not just yet but I mean we really shouldn’t be too.
surprised by this because we now know that the gut actually contains an awful lot of the neurons neural circuitry that’s.
present in the brain and it’s often thought to be the second brain I mean it has a very large number of neurons 500.
million and it produces lots of neurotransmitters and you know there’s some evidence that sort of links that got to the.
brain so brain-dead people their stomach functions normally for quite a while it’s almost an inherent activity anybody.
that’s taken paint major pain-killing drugs like morphine for example you know the risk of constipation it shuts down.
motility in your gut and emotions and feeling are intimately associate with bowel function right we’ve all had their.
butterflies in the stomach that nervous got action well that’s all those neurons in your gut that are firing away and.
when you look at the structure of the nerves in the gut that make up the enteric nervous system you know these are the.
neurons or the dendrites here in silver the white colour this is our gut tissue and you can see that when we superimpose.
these two the nerve fibres actually penetrate and intermix between all our gut tissue and they actually look like.
they’re actually protruding into the lumen to be able to sense perhaps the presence of factors that they can respond to.
that are in the gut looming that could be made by gut microbes and the vague nerve is ultimately this the route by which.
all this signalling in the gut leads into the brain so all these signals here that the enteric nervous system responds.
to are fed into the brain via the vague nerve and so we know that if the vague nerve is blocked or damaged through.
injury profound effects on appetite and eating in fact it causes drastic weight loss so it’s clearly a regulator of body.
weight and vague nerve stimulation by hormones and neurotransmitters in the gut could drive excessive eating behaviour.
so over stimulation is not necessarily good thing and not surprisingly gut microbes can actually regulate how much of.
these neurotransmitters and hormones are produced in the gut and they can manipulate this to their own advantage by.
producing things that can block or stimulate the consistent in the gut so microbes control eating behaviour by influence.
signals that are delivered to the brain and by the vagus nerve and two of the most importance of dopamine and serotonin.
so dopamine associated rewards pleasure compulsions serotonin regulates our mood our memory sleep cognition dopamine.
about half of the amount of dopamine producing the body is produced in the gut and some gut microbes can produce vast.
amounts of dopamine and so you may know that L dopamine is used to treat Parkinson’s disease serotonin is even more.
striking but virtually all the serotonin the body is made in the gut and gut microbes produce factors that can mimic or.
block serotonin action in the gut and deficiency of serotonin is linked to depression so I hope you can see that.
microbes by manipulating just these two neurotransmitters can profoundly influence our mood behaviour whether we’re.
anxious whether relaxed how much we sleep how much we eat and so linking this to a disease interest this is more recent.
study now linking gut microbes to a disease that’s called autism spectrum disorder so autism so we know from looking at.
patient’s microbiota is that they have they’re disturbed they have alterations the makeup of microbes and also there are.
altered levels of what the microbes produce and there’s a mouse here that can be can develop autism like Syndrome.
particular excessive grooming and vocalization is affected as the art as it is in autistic children and what this group.
that works with this mouse showed that they could restore or treat this mouse by using ant probiotics so live bacteria.
and so the live bacteria altered the gut composition of the microbes and it looked now more like normal animals and this.
was linked to resealing of the gut so these animals are leaking and it was the leakiness allowing but these microbe.
derived by products to get into the bloodstream and into the brain but as soon as the barrier was improved the leakage.
stopped and it restored the normal levels that you would find in serum and it stopped or halted some of the features of.
autism so this is animal experimentation but it clearly shows that it could be a role for alterations in gut microbes.
that are linked to neurodegenerative diseases and autism in particular so neurotransmitters well there are also hormones.
producing the gut which regulate appetite and here they said there are appetites that are produced to say stop eating.
you’ve eaten too much now we have all we need no more tweet and then there are hormones it’s signals to the brain state.
we’re hungry you need to eat and it’s the balance of these two that determine our appetite regulates how much we eat.
when we eat not surprisingly now perhaps you think what gut bacteria can alter the balance of these hormones and these.
hormones are mainly produced in the gut so we know that probiotic bacteria can raise the level of this amino acid.
tryptophan and tryptophan is an important because it’s involved in generating or producing these hormones and bacteria.
that live in the gut can produce mimics of some of these hormones in for example leptin graylien pyy that are influenced.
your appetite so they can influence eating and appetite control directly by mimicking the hormones normally produced in.
the gut indirectly they can stimulate things that will block hormone signalling to change your appetite and this is a.
slightly different one this is very recent showing how we with this information we can actually use it to try and.
redress the balance so here we have this chemical here which is produced as a result of a break digestion of fats is.
called napes and as I said these are naturally producing the small bowel as a process of digestion lipid digestion obese.
individuals have very low levels compared to normal healthy individuals and so what this group said well okay what if we.
engineer a bacteria that lives in the gut to produce this factor can we then reboot increase the levels back to normal.
and so what they show is when they fed these bacteria producing this chemical to mice you could protect them from.
becoming obese so give them a high fat diet given lots of Big Macs they stayed lean just by giving bacteria that.
produced this chemical and what’s interesting is this persisted for a very long time even after the bacteria to left the.
body there was still in effect so obviously this could lead to a different type of intervention using these engineered.
bacteria as a treatment for redressing appetite control and maybe even obesity so gut microbes you know we can engineer.
them and we can utilize our expertise in work with microbes for beneficial effects and you know I’ve tried to highlight.
one or two things that microbes produce that influence our behaviour this is a little bit more of a list that shows.
things that impact on our body’s function I’ve talked about energy metabolism the equity’s factors that help is blood.
clot blood for blood coagulation new adjustments I talked about that sleep and mood they produce factors that will.
determine how much sleep we take whether or not sleeps beneficial and it’s just they produce factors that cause bad.
breath so a variety of things that impact on our health and behaviour so I come to the third prediction that there is a.
positive selection system positive reinforcement if you like in which the type of food we eat selects for specific.
microbes which in turn then feedback on making us eat more of that and my example here is a seaweed diet so a stable.
diet selects a microbial specialists the lead to us wanting to eat more of these things so there’s two types of seaweed.
Dyer this is one but I’m not going to talk about that one I’m going to talk about this one okay seaweed now Japanese in.
in Japan vast amounts of seaweed are consumed every year about more than four kilograms per person but they can process.
and eat seaweed because they have genes present in their microbes that produce the enzymes that allow them to break down.
the seaweed okay the genes originated from bacteria that live on the seaweed so as they were consuming the seaweed some.
of those microbes stayed in the gut long enough to pass on these genes to the normal population of microbes in the gut.
so this microbes that contaminated seaweed actually transferred some of the beneficial enzymes and genes they had to the.
normal population mire’s in their gut so this is positive reinforcement because seaweed has lots of health benefits the.
exacta fiction promotes weight loss lowers blood cholesterol so the helps reasons to eat it and the more you eat the.
more microbes and genes you have you acquire enable you to break it down and get maximal nutritional benefit so it’s is.
positive reinforcement but you can only do that if you have the microbes there and the genes present in the first place.
Japanese population do because they consume a lot of that so as another type of food preference which is food avoidance.
and food allergy okay so food allergies have increased dramatically in recent times so more than 50% since 1997 and.
they’ve been linked to the modern lifestyle so-called hygiene hypothesis overuse of antibiotics again destroying of the.
microbiota and so we can sort of look at this in more detail using again mice and so if we destroy the microbiota in.
mice with antibiotics we can actually lick give these mice analogy to peanuts just as many children have but if we.
reintroduce one type of bacteria into the gut we can actually cure them of their allergy and that’s this bacteria.
Clostridium so this is direct evidence linking gut microbe activity to food avoidance okay and food allergies so not.
only are the microbes that will encourage us to eat more there are microbes in our gut that will stop us from eating.
things which causes harm smart bugs really and also sweetness and taste again if you look at taste receptors that are.
present on the tongue germ-free mice have different types of receptors compared to mice that have populated the microbes.
so Joffrey mice have a sweet tooth they prefer more sweets and have lots more sweet receptors on their tongues than mice.
that have populations of michaeles in their gut and so near is the knowledge on come to in humans is patients that.
undergo gastric bypass surgery for obesity their food preference is shift enormously in fact they develop avoidance.
strategies to stop eating like some dairy products and even meat and this is a company by striking change than they got.
microbes as a result of the surgery so microbes can influence food preferences by altering our taste perception of foods.
so all of this together is summarized here so what I’m predicting is that food cravings are associated with vagal nerve.
stimulation by blocking that we control appetite and we can reduce food cravings by altering our gut microbes we can.
cure food cravings and we can cure maybe allergies and then the diversity of our gut microbiota and what they produce.
should affect food choices and satiety okay so if we increase the diversity we have a better chance of controlling.
appetite and keeping us healthy and not from gaining excessive weight so that’s great so how do we actually go about.
changing the that live in our gut so this is gut microbe therapy which I’m leading to lawn care so anything or when’s it.
going to talk about lawn care that’s coming right so message to fix your brain you need to fix your gut and there are.
different strategies we can use there’s the expensive one pharmacy prescription of drugs sorry getting a bit ahead of.
ourselves here antimicrobial therapy so obviously I’ve highlighted some of the issues with antimicrobial therapy.
toxicity can cause the outgrowth of pathogens like cross stream difficile and we develop resistance our bugs would.
develop resistance to the antibiotics and they’re not cheap vancomycin however has been used for diet induced obesity to.
control diet in use to be so it’s not all bad news but it’s still expensive other approaches rely on biotics Pro and.
prebiotics and then I’m going to talk about transplants I there we go I will do probiotics there we go live.
microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit that is the w-h-o definition of a.
probiotic they are found in a variety of foods these will be most familiar to you these are generally for anybody then.
we have ones that are designed for children and even pets so you can get probiotic to your pets evidence that they work.
or may work so there’s evidence that they can decrease food intake they can reduce fat mass improve insulin sensitivity.
stop us from becoming diabetic yogurt is the food that’s most associated with reduce weight gain if you think of the.
things that we eat to try and reduce our weight yogurt is one of the things we generally eat and probiotic treatment in.
pregnancy can prevent excessive weight gain in the infant after birth so the other approach is prebiotics and prebiotics.
can be suited as food to feed your healthy microbes and if you go remember back to my gut trivia slide I said you need.
to consume 50 or 60 grams and these things well this is what I’m talking about these are the types of food that I will.
fuel provide the fuel for your healthy bacteria and there can be in lots of things from pre-burn even toothpaste contain.
probiotics prebiotics food for your gut bacteria so this is what they are generally as I said the different types of.
sugars breast milk is a very good source of inulin which is a very good prebiotic and then these variety of foods here.
but five a day this is one of the reason why we keep saying five servings of fruit and vegetables a day there are very.
good source of prebiotics to keep your gut bugs healthy okay so you can take probiotics and you can feed your healthy.
bugs by eating these types of foods the more radical approach is okay that’s not working let’s get rid of everything and.
replace it so faecal microbiota transplantation so this is it in a snapshot and maybe I’ll cure me a my food addiction.
yeah sounds gross God how the hell could this work but it does work it works incredibly well for treating gut infection.
against C difficile to come up again you know it’s a 94 percent cure rate which is much higher than all the drugs and.
antibiotics sounds gross but it works so the question why does it work and how does it work well that’s something the.
Institute we’re very interested in knowing so it works but you might think well this is something new I’ve only been.
reading in the Daily Mail for the last year or so but in fact it goes back a long way the Chinese were way ahead of us.
so two and a half thousand years ago they were giving people yellow soup to drink to keep them healthy vets have been.
using it for a couple hundred years a post called transformation transferring stool from one animal to another to keep.
it healthy first really use tested in humans in 1958 it was given to four patients there were near death from a type of.
colitis it cured all four patients and then since the C difficile experiment you know we’ve treated over 500 patients no.
side effects whatsoever and success rate is incredibly high and it’s stable so as far as five years out you know these.
people are still free of Clostridium difficile infection so it is very good so how do we do it there are several options.
okay there’s the craps you’ll there’s you know things you can have it’s part of your healthy diet for there’s the very.
more unpleasant way a tube and if you go on the internet you can get do DIY kits that allow you to do this at home very.
scary stuff but you know I think we’d all prefer the crap show so what are we going to use it for so I’ve said you know.
there’s some obvious diseases obesity clearly I’ve shown giving you some evidence that got microbes cause obesity so if.
we change our gut microbes can we stop us from becoming obese or even cause weight loss eating disorders again showed it.
as a link between our gut microbes and what we eat or what we can’t eat so again this could be another application.
autoimmune diseases inflammatory bowel disease Crohn’s disease ulcerative colitis rheumatoid arthritis they’re all.
potential slightly more speculative but something we’re interested at the Institute in looking at can we reverse some of.
the effects of aging ooh not quite sure what that is now I don’t want BT burned so yes can we reverse the effects of.
aging so our gut microbes change drastically as we age and that’s the search of a decline in our immune system function.
we become less resistant to infections and we mostly some people here probably annual flu vaccines right try and boost.
our immunity what if we could boost your immunity by giving you a crap seal would you rather have a needle or a.
corruption maybe we can reverse other signs of aging you know maybe if we’re rich and famous because we’ve got the youth.
capsule yeah Reggie’s taking orders at the frontier how does it work well this is another example of how it works so.
this is fecal microbiota transplant by a nasal gastric tube so this is you know the way it’s been working so far taking.
my crinkle micros from lean donors given to patients with metabolic syndrome these are patients at risk of developing.
diabetes six weeks post treatment we can clear glucose from the blood and they’re now responding to insulin and this is.
associated with a drastic change but they got microbes increased diversity but with everything that’s always a bunt and.
this is the butt donor selection is important this is a very reason a report was published 32 year old female with a.
recalcitrant C difficile infection remember this is the disease we can cure with FM t she decided she wanted to take.
stool cell from her daughter as the donor as you probably would a daughter was a little overweight but she later gained.
weight and became obese the mother 16 months post treatment have been given her daughter’s microbes got microbes became.
obese she gained excessive weight despite all interventions she could not keep the weight off and at 36 months she.
weighed 80 kilograms a BMI of 34.5 what this led in this particular Hospital was a complete change in the way donors are.
selected okay so there is the smoking gun here obviously the clinicians would think well it came from the best patient.
we just transferred the phenotype to the mother well maybe but clear there’s a link here so what we have to think about.
carefully now is donor selection what is the criteria we need to apply to a donor in order to be able to use their stool.
sample for a transplant here’s the lawn care so if you think about trying to keep your gut microbes healthy you know.
here’s our healthy flourishing lon we can devastate it with antibiotics you know we can just let the weeds grow so if.
we’ve got antibiotics you know we might want to give prebiotics you know turf food or we might want to put new seed down.
probiotics right and then the more radical therapy a lawn transplant bacterial therapy okay so think of your gut keeping.
Elvis lawn care and this is my take-home message okay if you have young children get them a pet and let them roll around.
in the mud let them eat mud you know maximum exposure lots of healthy microbes and with that I thank you and I’m happy.
to take any questions you might have in the comments below.