INTERNET WIFI MODEM Works Only Under These Conditions

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An Xfinity Internet modem + WiFi router in one, designed to deliver enhanced coverage and the benefits of xFi, our best WiFi experience. Rent yours at checkout for just $13/mo. You’ll receive an xFi Gateway or xFi Advanced Gateway depending on your location and plan needs.

Get xFi, only with the xFi Gateway Shop deals that include Internet, and get the speed you need. Choose the xFi Gateway at checkout to get the benefits of xFi. Make the most of it with our free xFi app and customizable add-ons.

Want to use your own equipment? You’ll still get reliably fast Internet speeds. But you won’t get the smart features of xFi, 24/7 tech support, or proactive device upgrades.

As a new customer, you may see different prices, terms and promotions unavailable to existing customers. Welcome back to Shaw. As an existing customer, you may see different prices, terms and promotions unavailable to new customers.

Why Shaw Fastest Internet Service Providerin Western Canada According to Speedtest.net35, nobody beats Shaw for fastest download speeds in Western Canada. Because no matter what you’re doing or when you’re doing it, our FibrePlus network gives you the fast and reliable connection you need to live your connected life.

Why Shaw Fastest Internet Service Providerin Western Canada According to Speedtest.net35, nobody beats Shaw for fastest download speeds in Western Canada. Because no matter what you’re doing or when you’re doing it, our FibrePlus network gives you the fast and reliable connection you need to live your connected life.

According to Speedtest.net35, nobody beats Shaw for fastest download speeds in Western Canada. Because no matter what you’re doing or when you’re doing it, our FibrePlus network gives you the fast and reliable connection you need to live your connected life.

With a Cox Panoramic Wifi Gateway rental, we’ll make sure you have the latest software/firmware on the device. And, when it becomes obsolete, we’ll replace it. If it breaks, we’ll replace it. If you would like to manage your own network, we offer easy tools like the Panoramic Wifi app to help you do that. If you need help, our technical phone support is open 24/7 for assistance. Our professional installation includes a wifi signal strength assessment to ensure full wall-to-wall coverage, identification of any dead zones and recommendations for the best solution.

Dead zones refer to areas within a Wifi network where signal is unreliable or absent. They can be minimized or eliminated by placing your router in an unobstructed location such as on top of high furniture or “line of sight” locations. In instances where obstructions can’t be avoided, such as between floors or around walls in large square-foot homes, Panoramic Wifi Pods can reduce or eliminate in-home dead zones so you have consistently fast Wifi coverage throughout the house. Learn about Panoramic Wifi Pods.

Our Panoramic Wifi Gateway is only available for rental. This ensures that all of our customers receive the latest, top-end equipment and ensures they do not get “locked in” to a device when technology changes. You may provide your own modem, wifi router or combination device (click here for a list of supported devices). However, we will not be able to provide any support for your home network unless you rent the Panoramic Wifi Gateway. This allows us to provide the best experience and support possible to our wifi customers.

Weak wifi signals can occur in large homes for many reasons, with the most common reason being the thickness or material within walls or floors. Get stronger wifi signals in more places with Panoramic Wifi Pods, the wifi-boosting stars of our Panoramic Wifi suite. Panoramic Wifi Pods enhance coverage to reduce dead zones and provide reliably fast wifi throughout your home. Learn about Panoramic Wifi Pods.

Internet service packages shown are not available in all areas. Cable modem required for Internet services. For best performance, use of Cox-approved cable modem is recommended. A DOCSIS 3.0 modem or higher is required to consistently receive optimal speeds for Preferred 100 and higher tiers, and is strongly recommended for all other tiers. Uninterrupted or error-free Internet service, or the speed of your service, is not guaranteed. For Ultimate users with Microsoft operating systems: If you are using an MS operating system other than Vista/Windows 7 (e.g., Microsoft XP), your registry keys must be updated to enable maximum speed performance.

All Cox Internet plans include 1 TB (1024 GB) per month of data usage. Unlimited and 500 GB Additional Data Plans can be added for an additional monthly charge. Data usage in excess of plan may result in a $10 charge for up to 50 GB of additional data and for each additional 50 GB block, except for Unlimited Data Plan subscribers. Unused data does not roll over. See also Speeds and Data Plans Information for High Speed Internet Service in your area for details. See cox.com/datausage for complete data usage details. Prices, and/or when applicable, contracts, may differ from those presented here as a result of existing customer pricing, customer’s specific service address, and/or contract related updates. Installation fees may apply. Other restrictions may apply.

Panoramic Wifi modem Need a smarter wifi experience? Panoramic Wifi Gateway delivers consistently fast wifi throughout your home all day, every day — and all for just $10.99/mo. You’ll have one less piece of equipment to worry about since it’s both a modem and a router. It automatically chooses the best wifi frequencies for surfing, streaming and sharing. Set wifi rules and track down data-hogging devices, straight from the Panoramic Wifi app Shop Internet.

Panoramic Wifi Gateway delivers consistently fast wifi throughout your home all day, every day — and all for just $10.99/mo. You’ll have one less piece of equipment to worry about since it’s both a modem and a router. It automatically chooses the best wifi frequencies for surfing, streaming and sharing. Set wifi rules and track down data-hogging devices, straight from the Panoramic Wifi app.

Panoramic Wifi system FAQs How is the Panoramic Wifi Modem different than the other modem you offer? The Panoramic Wifi Gateway is the only Wifi Modem Cox offers for rental. This device combines a DOCSIS 3.1 (3.0 for Internet Starter, Internet Essential and Internet Preferred) cable modem with a powerful 2-port gigabit wired router, dual band 802.11 AC wireless router which also supports 802.11 A/G/N. How is Panoramic Wifi from Cox different from Luma, Eero or Google Wifi? With a Cox Panoramic Wifi Gateway rental, we’ll make sure you have the latest software/firmware on the device. And, when it becomes obsolete, we’ll replace it. If it breaks, we’ll replace it. If you would like to manage your own network, we offer easy tools like the Panoramic Wifi app to help you do that. If you need help, our technical phone support is open 24/7 for assistance. Our professional installation includes a wifi signal strength assessment to ensure full wall-to-wall coverage, identification of any dead zones and recommendations for the best solution. Why am I required to rent the Panoramic Wifi Gateway? The Panoramic Wifi Gateway is only available for a monthly rental fee to our customers. This ensures that we have the capability to upgrade the software and firmware on these devices to add functionality and protect and manage devices connected to our network. This also ensures that as technology evolves, we are able to ensure our customers receive the newest and best devices in their home. What are Wifi dead zones? Dead zones refer to areas within a Wifi network where signal is unreliable or absent. They can be minimized or eliminated by placing your router in an unobstructed location such as on top of high furniture or “line of sight” locations. In instances where obstructions can’t be avoided, such as between floors or around walls in large square-foot homes, Panoramic Wifi Pods can reduce or eliminate in-home dead zones so you have consistently fast Wifi coverage throughout the house. Learn about Panoramic Wifi Pods Can I buy the Panoramic Wifi Gateway? Our Panoramic Wifi Gateway is only available for rental. This ensures that all of our customers receive the latest, top-end equipment and ensures they do not get “locked in” to a device when technology changes. You may provide your own modem, wifi router or combination device (click here for a list of supported devices). However, we will not be able to provide any support for your home network unless you rent the Panoramic Wifi Gateway. This allows us to provide the best experience and support possible to our wifi customers. I’m getting poor wifi signals or no Internet connection in parts of my home. Weak wifi signals can occur in large homes for many reasons, with the most common reason being the thickness or material within walls or floors. Get stronger wifi signals in more places with Panoramic Wifi Pods, the wifi-boosting stars of our Panoramic Wifi suite. Panoramic Wifi Pods enhance coverage to reduce dead zones and provide reliably fast wifi throughout your home. Learn about Panoramic Wifi Pods.

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How is the Panoramic Wifi Modem different than the other modem you offer? The Panoramic Wifi Gateway is the only Wifi Modem Cox offers for rental. This device combines a DOCSIS 3.1 (3.0 for Internet Starter, Internet Essential and Internet Preferred) cable modem with a powerful 2-port gigabit wired router, dual band 802.11 AC wireless router which also supports 802.11 A/G/N. How is Panoramic Wifi from Cox different from Luma, Eero or Google Wifi? With a Cox Panoramic Wifi Gateway rental, we’ll make sure you have the latest software/firmware on the device. And, when it becomes obsolete, we’ll replace it. If it breaks, we’ll replace it. If you would like to manage your own network, we offer easy tools like the Panoramic Wifi app to help you do that. If you need help, our technical phone support is open 24/7 for assistance. Our professional installation includes a wifi signal strength assessment to ensure full wall-to-wall coverage, identification of any dead zones and recommendations for the best solution. Why am I required to rent the Panoramic Wifi Gateway? The Panoramic Wifi Gateway is only available for a monthly rental fee to our customers. This ensures that we have the capability to upgrade the software and firmware on these devices to add functionality and protect and manage devices connected to our network. This also ensures that as technology evolves, we are able to ensure our customers receive the newest and best devices in their home. What are Wifi dead zones? Dead zones refer to areas within a Wifi network where signal is unreliable or absent. They can be minimized or eliminated by placing your router in an unobstructed location such as on top of high furniture or “line of sight” locations. In instances where obstructions can’t be avoided, such as between floors or around walls in large square-foot homes, Panoramic Wifi Pods can reduce or eliminate in-home dead zones so you have consistently fast Wifi coverage throughout the house. Learn about Panoramic Wifi Pods Can I buy the Panoramic Wifi Gateway? Our Panoramic Wifi Gateway is only available for rental. This ensures that all of our customers receive the latest, top-end equipment and ensures they do not get “locked in” to a device when technology changes. You may provide your own modem, wifi router or combination device (click here for a list of supported devices). However, we will not be able to provide any support for your home network unless you rent the Panoramic Wifi Gateway. This allows us to provide the best experience and support possible to our wifi customers. I’m getting poor wifi signals or no Internet connection in parts of my home. Weak wifi signals can occur in large homes for many reasons, with the most common reason being the thickness or material within walls or floors. Get stronger wifi signals in more places with Panoramic Wifi Pods, the wifi-boosting stars of our Panoramic Wifi suite. Panoramic Wifi Pods enhance coverage to reduce dead zones and provide reliably fast wifi throughout your home. Learn about Panoramic Wifi Pods.

How is Panoramic Wifi from Cox different from Luma, Eero or Google Wifi? With a Cox Panoramic Wifi Gateway rental, we’ll make sure you have the latest software/firmware on the device. And, when it becomes obsolete, we’ll replace it. If it breaks, we’ll replace it. If you would like to manage your own network, we offer easy tools like the Panoramic Wifi app to help you do that. If you need help, our technical phone support is open 24/7 for assistance. Our professional installation includes a wifi signal strength assessment to ensure full wall-to-wall coverage, identification of any dead zones and recommendations for the best solution.

What are Wifi dead zones? Dead zones refer to areas within a Wifi network where signal is unreliable or absent. They can be minimized or eliminated by placing your router in an unobstructed location such as on top of high furniture or “line of sight” locations. In instances where obstructions can’t be avoided, such as between floors or around walls in large square-foot homes, Panoramic Wifi Pods can reduce or eliminate in-home dead zones so you have consistently fast Wifi coverage throughout the house. Learn about Panoramic Wifi Pods.

Can I buy the Panoramic Wifi Gateway? Our Panoramic Wifi Gateway is only available for rental. This ensures that all of our customers receive the latest, top-end equipment and ensures they do not get “locked in” to a device when technology changes. You may provide your own modem, wifi router or combination device (click here for a list of supported devices). However, we will not be able to provide any support for your home network unless you rent the Panoramic Wifi Gateway. This allows us to provide the best experience and support possible to our wifi customers.

I’m getting poor wifi signals or no Internet connection in parts of my home. Weak wifi signals can occur in large homes for many reasons, with the most common reason being the thickness or material within walls or floors. Get stronger wifi signals in more places with Panoramic Wifi Pods, the wifi-boosting stars of our Panoramic Wifi suite. Panoramic Wifi Pods enhance coverage to reduce dead zones and provide reliably fast wifi throughout your home. Learn about Panoramic Wifi Pods.

Cox Internet service details × Internet service packages shown are not available in all areas. Cable modem required for Internet services. For best performance, use of Cox-approved cable modem is recommended. A DOCSIS 3.0 modem or higher is required to consistently receive optimal speeds for Preferred 100 and higher tiers, and is strongly recommended for all other tiers. Uninterrupted or error-free Internet service, or the speed of your service, is not guaranteed. For Ultimate users with Microsoft operating systems: If you are using an MS operating system other than Vista/Windows 7 (e.g., Microsoft XP), your registry keys must be updated to enable maximum speed performance.

A modem is a device that sends information between the outside world, or wide area network (WAN), and your home. Think of WAN as the Internet, and your modem as the entry gate to the Internet.

That’s the simple explanation. For the more technically savvy: A modem is a device that turns your inbound connection (coax cable, telephone line, fiber optic line, or other) into an Ethernet connection, which allows a router to connect to the Internet.

Note: A Wifi point is a router. To use a Wifi point, you will need to connect it to a modem with an Ethernet cable. This can be a standalone modem or a modem+router combination provided by your ISP. Keep in mind, some apartment buildings and dorms don’t require modems for broadband connections. If this is the case, you can plug your primary Wifi point directly into a wall Ethernet port.

Our routers offer everything you need to get connected to the internet. For the fastest, most reliable connections, even for large homes and multi-device families, a great router is what you need.

With a growing number of devices popping up in our homes, from tablets and netbooks to laptops and smartphones, the demands on our internet connections are growing. A router allows all of the devices in your home to connect wirelessly to the internet – so it means you can say goodbye to cables. Our router range includes all of the leading names in solid router design, from TP-Link routers to Netgear routers , so you can always rely on a stable WiFi connection.

If your Wifi point is connected directly to the modem, you may need to enter a PPPoE account name and password before the modem allows the Wifi point to access the internet. If you don’t know your PPPoE information, contact your internet service provider (ISP). In many cases, this is the same username and password you use to log into your ISP account.

Wifi point can’t connect to the InternetIf your Wifi point isn’t getting an internet connection from your modem: Unplug your modem and your Wifi point from power. This will make sure that your modem and Wifi point are fully off. Then plug the power cable back into only your modem and wait 1 minute. Plug the power cable into your Wifi point and wait 20 seconds for it to power on. If you’re setting up an Wifi point, close the Google Wifi app and re-open it to attempt setup. Your Wifi point’s light will continually pulse blue when it’s ready for setup. Other possible causes Do you have DSL or fibre Internet? If your Wifi point is connected directly to the modem, you may need to enter a PPPoE account name and password before the modem allows the Wifi point to access the internet. If you don’t know your PPPoE information, contact your internet service provider (ISP). In many cases, this is the same username and password you use to log into your ISP account. Having trouble? Go to PPPoE issues during setup. Static IP Some users may also have a static IP, though it isn’t common. If you have one, contact your internet service provider (ISP) and ask for your static IP. Then enter it in your WAN settings. Was this helpful?How can we improve it?YesNoSubmit.

If your Wifi point isn’t getting an internet connection from your modem: Unplug your modem and your Wifi point from power. This will make sure that your modem and Wifi point are fully off. Then plug the power cable back into only your modem and wait 1 minute. Plug the power cable into your Wifi point and wait 20 seconds for it to power on. If you’re setting up an Wifi point, close the Google Wifi app and re-open it to attempt setup. Your Wifi point’s light will continually pulse blue when it’s ready for setup. Other possible causes Do you have DSL or fibre Internet? If your Wifi point is connected directly to the modem, you may need to enter a PPPoE account name and password before the modem allows the Wifi point to access the internet. If you don’t know your PPPoE information, contact your internet service provider (ISP). In many cases, this is the same username and password you use to log into your ISP account. Having trouble? Go to PPPoE issues during setup. Static IP Some users may also have a static IP, though it isn’t common. If you have one, contact your internet service provider (ISP) and ask for your static IP. Then enter it in your WAN settings.

A great quality WiFi router can make all the difference when it comes to enjoying a fast and reliable connection in your home, no matter what you need to get online for. And with the advent of the Internet of Things, it’s not just your laptop and your smartphone that you’ll need to get connected. We’ve got you covered with our fantastic range from leading brands.

Or how about a WiFi dongle while you’re travelling? These work with laptops, tablets and smartphones. Be sure to check out our selection of Netgear routers as well. If you’re a gamer, you’ve even got the option to go for a powerful gaming router for gameplay that’s totally lag-free, faultless and completely immersive.

Looking for cable routers? You’ve come to exactly the right place for those too – plus ethernet cables in a range of lengths. And if your WiFi could do with a bit of a boost, whether it’s slow or unreliable, take a look at our selection of WiFi boosters designed especially for this purpose.

A great quality WiFi router can make all the difference when it comes to enjoying a fast and reliable connection in your home, no matter what you need to get online for. And with the advent of the Internet of Things, it’s not just your laptop and your smartphone that you’ll need to get connected. We’ve got you covered with our fantastic range from leading brands.Why not go for a BT router for a solid WiFi connection? Consider a whole-home pack which includes multiple devices for a complete WiFi network with no dead spots and a seamless connection, wherever you are in your home. Alternatively, why not take a look at our range TP-Link routers? There are loads of excellent wireless options to choose from – and mobile routers are what you want so you can find 4G on the go.Or how about a WiFi dongle while you’re travelling? These work with laptops, tablets and smartphones. Be sure to check out our selection of Netgear routers as well. If you’re a gamer, you’ve even got the option to go for a powerful gaming router for gameplay that’s totally lag-free, faultless and completely immersive.Looking for cable routers? You’ve come to exactly the right place for those too – plus ethernet cables in a range of lengths. And if your WiFi could do with a bit of a boost, whether it’s slow or unreliable, take a look at our selection of WiFi boosters designed especially for this purpose.

With the gaggle of connected home products, smart TVs, smartphones, and other mobile devices ruling our lives, it’s more important than ever to outfit your home or business with a wireless router that can handle the increased demand for Wi-Fi connectivity. When choosing a new router, you should consider the size of your coverage area and the number of clients, as well as the types of devices that will connect to the router. Not everybody needs the kind of performance that you get with the latest and greatest models, and there’s no reason to pay for features that you will likely never use. But if you have several family members vying for bandwidth for things like streaming Netflix video and playing Apex Legends online, a new router can make a world of difference and help keep the peace. We guide you through choosing a router that will handle your current and future wireless networking needs, and offer our top picks to get you started.

Nowadays, any router worth its salt will offer at least two radio bands, a 2.4GHz band and a 5GHz band. The 2.4GHz band operates at a lower frequency than the 5GHz band and offers better range because it is more adept at penetrating walls and other structures. However, is doesn’t offer the fat pipe and high speed access that you get with the 5GHz band.

Additionally, the 2.4GHz Wi-Fi band has to compete with other devices in the home that use the same frequency, such as microwave ovens, Bluetooth devices, and wireless phones. That said, it is perfectly adequate for tasks like Web surfing and connecting to social media services like Facebook and Twitter. If one or more of your devices will be streaming video from a service such as Netflix, or connecting to an online gaming service such as Xbox Live, the less crowded 5GHz band offers significantly more throughput with minimal signal interference. Most dual-band routers allow you to assign a band to specific applications and clients, thereby easing the load on both bands.

If you have a busy network with numerous clients vying for bandwidth, a tri-band router is the way to go. They use three radios—one that operates at 2.4GHz and two that operate at 5GHz, for load balancing. For example, you can dedicate one of the 5GHz bands to handle tasks like video streaming and torrent downloading and reserve the other 5GHz band for online gaming, leaving the 2.4GHz band free for applications that don’t require lots of bandwidth.

Wireless Ethernet networks use 802.11 protocols to send and receive data. The most widely used Wi-Fi protocol, 802.11ac, allows for maximum (theoretical) data rates of up to 5,400Mbps and operates on both the 2.4GHz and the 5GHz bands. It utilizes Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technology, which uses several antennas to send and receive up to eight spatial streams, resulting in enhanced performance. It also supports beamforming, a technology that sends Wi-Fi signals directly to a client rather than broadcasting in all directions, and automatic band-steering, which lets the router select the most efficient radio band based on network traffic, band availability, and range.

You’ll see 802.11ac routers with labels like AC1200, AC1750, AC3200, and so on. This designates the theoretical maximum speed of the router. For example, a router that can achieve a maximum link rate of 450Mbps on the 2.4GHz band and 1,300Mbps on the 5GHz band is considered an AC1750 router. A tri-band AC3200 router gives you 600Mbps over the 2.4GHz band and 1,300Mbps over each of the two 5GHz bands, and an AC5400 router is capable of speeds of up to 1Gbps on the 2.4GHz band and 2.1Gbps on each of the two 5GHz bands. It’s important to note that routers rarely, if ever, reach these “maximum speeds” in real-world applications, but if you’re looking for performance, consider one of the high-speed routers (but be prepared to pay a premium).

The latest Wi-Fi protocol, 802.11ax, also known as Wi-Fi 6 or High Efficiency (HE) Wireless, is an evolution of 802.11ac technology that promises increased throughput speeds (up to 4.8Gbps), less network congestion, greater client capacity, and better range performance courtesy of several new and improved wireless technologies including Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) and Target Wake Time (TWT). OFDMA improves overall throughput by breaking Wi-Fi channels into sub-channels, allowing up to 30 users to share a channel at the same time. Target Wake Time (TWT) is designed to reduce power consumption by allowing devices to determine when and how often they will wake up to begin sending and receiving data. TWT tech is expected to extend the battery life of mobile devices such as smart phones and tablets as well as battery-powered smart home devices such as security cameras and video doorbells.

Additionally, 802.11ax takes advantage of previously unused radio frequencies to provide faster 2.4GHz performance, and it uses refined uplink and downlink bandwidth management to provide enhanced QoS (Quality of Service). It also offers uplink and downlink MU-MIMO streaming (802.11ac only supports downlink MU-MIMO). Although there are a handful of 802.11ax routers available now, client devices aren’t expected to hit the market until later this year. As with the 802.11ac protocol, 802.11ax is backward compatible and will work with devices that use 802.11a/b/g/n/ac Wi-Fi radios. For more on the benefits of the 802.11ax protocol, check out our primer: What Is Wi-Fi 6? New Wi-Fi Names Explained.

Wireless routers come with a variety of features, and as is the case with just about everything, the more features you get, the more you can expect to pay. Look for a router with at least four 10/100/1000 (gigabit) Ethernet ports, which allow you to connect to wired devices such as desktop PCs, network-attached storage (NAS) drives, and home-automation hubs. If you require faster throughput for large file transfers, look for a router that supports link aggregation. Simply put, link aggregation uses two gigabit Ethernet LAN ports to provide increased throughput (up to 2Gbps). It also provides a fail-safe if one LAN connection goes down and can be utilized to load balance your network traffic. Having at least one USB port makes it easy to plug in a printer or a USB drive and share it across the network, but with two ports you can do both. Additionally, try to choose a router that offers removable antennas. Some router manufacturers offer replacement high-gain antennas that will help boost performance, and there are a number of third-party antennas available. Just make sure your router supports whatever antennas you buy or you’ll probably wind up with decreased performance.

A guest network lets you offer Wi-Fi connectivity to guests without leaving your entire network vulnerable. In a nutshell, you’re creating a separate network for guests with a Service Set Identifier (SSID) and password that are different from your main network credentials. This lets your guests connect to the Internet, but doesn’t give them access to your files, printers, and other connected devices.

With QoS settings, you can decide which applications and clients get network priority. For example, if one device is streaming Netflix video, and another device is downloading files or running a print job, you can give priority to the streaming device to avoid choppy, out-of-sync video. The same goes for online gaming; assigning a high QoS priority to a gaming console such as the Microsoft XBox One S or the Sony PS4 Pro will help eliminate lag time and improve overall gameplay.

The technology currently used to assign IP addresses, known as Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4), will eventually be replaced by its successor, IPv6. IPv4 is a 32-bit addressing scheme that before long will run out of addresses due to the number of devices connecting to the internet. IPv6 is a 128-bit scheme that will offer an (almost) infinite number of IP addresses. Most current routers have built-in support for IPv6 addressing, but it’s a good idea to verify this if you want to be ready for the transition when IPv4 finally hits the wall.

If you live in a large or multiple-story home, you may have Wi-Fi “dead zones.” These are areas of your home where your main router isn’t able to reach with a wireless signal. An easy way to solve this, without the hassle of running long cords around your home, is a wireless range extender, which will pick up your router’s Wi-Fi signal, amplify it, and rebroadcast it. They come in both desktop and plug-in variations, and are relatively easy to install.

If a range extender doesn’t do the trick, consider overhauling your network with a Wi-Fi mesh system. This technology offers an easy way to fill wireless dead zones in your home without the need for additional wiring, range extenders, or access points. They utilize extension nodes, or satellites, to extend your Wi-Fi signal across a larger area than most routers are capable of. Systems such as Google Wifi and the Linksys Velop employ mesh technology, where the satellites communicate with each other to provide coverage throughout your home, while others, like the Netgear Orbi High-Performance AC3000 Tri-Band Wi-Fi System (RBK50), use a dedicated Wi-Fi band to communicate with its satellite. Depending on the number of nodes in the system you choose, you can spread a consistent internet connection across as much as 4,000 to 6,000 square feet of space.

You’ll find a list of our favorite routers below. Once you’ve found the right one, read our tips for setting up your router and boosting your Wi-Fi signal. Or if you’re a gamer, you’ll want to take a look at our roundup of the best gaming routers.

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In the days of surfing, streaming, gaming, and more, your Wi-Fi router is the single most important piece of technology in your home. Make sure you pick the right one. Here’s what you need to know to optimize your network, along with the best wireless routers for all budgets.

When it comes to mobile broadband, you’ve come to exactly the right place with our extensive range of essential accessories – everything you need to get browsing on the go. From data dongles to mobile WiFi routers and WiFi hotspots, we’ve got you covered. Need a SIM card? Whatever your network of choice, you’ll find one here.

Whether you’re shopping, working or gaming online, you’ll need a router in your home so you can enjoy access to the world wide web and all it has to offer. And if you need to extend your WiFi network or you’re tired of those dead zones in your house, be sure to browse our selection of WiFi boosters so you can fix the problem.

When it comes to mobile broadband, you’ve come to exactly the right place with our extensive range of essential accessories – everything you need to get browsing on the go. From data dongles to mobile WiFi routers and WiFi hotspots, we’ve got you covered. Need a SIM card? Whatever your network of choice, you’ll find one here.Whether you’re shopping, working or gaming online, you’ll need a router in your home so you can enjoy access to the world wide web and all it has to offer. And if you need to extend your WiFi network or you’re tired of those dead zones in your house, be sure to browse our selection of WiFi boosters so you can fix the problem.Why not check out our range of Netgear WiFi extenders to start with? We have options to suit all budgets and requirements, including powerful designs that’ll give you whole home WiFi that’s fast and totally faultless. Alternatively, how about a BT WiFi extender? You might decide to opt for a twin pack option, featuring smart technology with ensures your gadgets are automatically connected to the best signal as you move about the house.Meanwhile, powerlines are what you need to transport your internet from your router to other adapter destinations – without compromising on speed or reliability.Looking for a new computer? Browse our range and you’re sure to find it, whether you’ve got gaming in mind or you’re after an affordable desktop for everyday use. Or why not check out our Acer laptops?.

When you don’t have to worry about your internet speeds or complicated setup, you can really unleash your home network. Best of all, SURFboard® products are designed to work with many of the largest ISPs and device manufacturers. So you can add more products as you need them to make your network grow – as your needs do.

When you don’t have to worry about your internet speeds or complicated setup, you can really unleash your home network. Best of all, SURFboard® products are designed to work with many of the largest ISPs and device manufacturers. So you can add more products as you need them to make your network grow – as your needs do.

Your days of wrestling with difficult wireless Internet routers are over! Every HughesNet Gen5 plan comes with built-in Wi-Fi, so you can easily connect your wireless devices throughout your home. And it’s all in one! The integrated Wi-Fi modem includes a satellite modem and an advanced Wi-Fi router, so you don’t have to deal with multiple pieces of equipment cluttering up your home.

The built-in modem is not only convenient, but also features the latest standards in Wi-Fi and technology, with 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz for incredible speeds and excellent coverage. The modem delivers (dual-band 802.11ac) fast and secure wireless connectivity.

With HughesNet Gen5, your satellite dish sends and receives information over the Internet and delivers it to your computer through your Wi-Fi enabled modem, giving you secure and fast Internet access. Your Wi-Fi modem is just one part of what makes your HughesNet Gen5 connection secure. It features separate guest Wi-Fi for visitors, so you can always ensure the security of your home network.

Not only do you have a Wi-Fi enabled modem with every HughesNet Gen5 plan, but you can also leave the installation to the pros! Your modem will be set up by your installer, and the technician will connect up to two devices on your network. Your HughesNet connection will also be backed by long-trusted customer support, with a strong track record of reliability and unsurpassed service. Your connectivity is also supported at all times. HughesNet is delivered through several Network Operations Centers that are equipped to monitor network performance 24/7. You can also monitor your data usage and track Wi-Fi performance.

Wi-Fi Modem Included in Every Plan Your days of wrestling with difficult wireless Internet routers are over! Every HughesNet Gen5 plan comes with built-in Wi-Fi, so you can easily connect your wireless devices throughout your home. And it’s all in one! The integrated Wi-Fi modem includes a satellite modem and an advanced Wi-Fi router, so you don’t have to deal with multiple pieces of equipment cluttering up your home. Latest Technology The built-in modem is not only convenient, but also features the latest standards in Wi-Fi and technology, with 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz for incredible speeds and excellent coverage. The modem delivers (dual-band 802.11ac) fast and secure wireless connectivity. It’s Part of Providing a Secure and Reliable Connection With HughesNet Gen5, your satellite dish sends and receives information over the Internet and delivers it to your computer through your Wi-Fi enabled modem, giving you secure and fast Internet access. Your Wi-Fi modem is just one part of what makes your HughesNet Gen5 connection secure. It features separate guest Wi-Fi for visitors, so you can always ensure the security of your home network. Installed and Supported by Hughes Not only do you have a Wi-Fi enabled modem with every HughesNet Gen5 plan, but you can also leave the installation to the pros! Your modem will be set up by your installer, and the technician will connect up to two devices on your network. Your HughesNet connection will also be backed by long-trusted customer support, with a strong track record of reliability and unsurpassed service. Your connectivity is also supported at all times. HughesNet is delivered through several Network Operations Centers that are equipped to monitor network performance 24/7. You can also monitor your data usage and track Wi-Fi performance.

Included in Every Plan Your days of wrestling with difficult wireless Internet routers are over! Every HughesNet Gen5 plan comes with built-in Wi-Fi, so you can easily connect your wireless devices throughout your home. And it’s all in one! The integrated Wi-Fi modem includes a satellite modem and an advanced Wi-Fi router, so you don’t have to deal with multiple pieces of equipment cluttering up your home. Latest Technology The built-in modem is not only convenient, but also features the latest standards in Wi-Fi and technology, with 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz for incredible speeds and excellent coverage. The modem delivers (dual-band 802.11ac) fast and secure wireless connectivity. It’s Part of Providing a Secure and Reliable Connection With HughesNet Gen5, your satellite dish sends and receives information over the Internet and delivers it to your computer through your Wi-Fi enabled modem, giving you secure and fast Internet access. Your Wi-Fi modem is just one part of what makes your HughesNet Gen5 connection secure. It features separate guest Wi-Fi for visitors, so you can always ensure the security of your home network. Installed and Supported by Hughes Not only do you have a Wi-Fi enabled modem with every HughesNet Gen5 plan, but you can also leave the installation to the pros! Your modem will be set up by your installer, and the technician will connect up to two devices on your network. Your HughesNet connection will also be backed by long-trusted customer support, with a strong track record of reliability and unsurpassed service. Your connectivity is also supported at all times. HughesNet is delivered through several Network Operations Centers that are equipped to monitor network performance 24/7. You can also monitor your data usage and track Wi-Fi performance.

Included in Every Plan Your days of wrestling with difficult wireless Internet routers are over! Every HughesNet Gen5 plan comes with built-in Wi-Fi, so you can easily connect your wireless devices throughout your home. And it’s all in one! The integrated Wi-Fi modem includes a satellite modem and an advanced Wi-Fi router, so you don’t have to deal with multiple pieces of equipment cluttering up your home.

Latest Technology The built-in modem is not only convenient, but also features the latest standards in Wi-Fi and technology, with 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz for incredible speeds and excellent coverage. The modem delivers (dual-band 802.11ac) fast and secure wireless connectivity.

It’s Part of Providing a Secure and Reliable Connection With HughesNet Gen5, your satellite dish sends and receives information over the Internet and delivers it to your computer through your Wi-Fi enabled modem, giving you secure and fast Internet access. Your Wi-Fi modem is just one part of what makes your HughesNet Gen5 connection secure. It features separate guest Wi-Fi for visitors, so you can always ensure the security of your home network.

Installed and Supported by Hughes Not only do you have a Wi-Fi enabled modem with every HughesNet Gen5 plan, but you can also leave the installation to the pros! Your modem will be set up by your installer, and the technician will connect up to two devices on your network. Your HughesNet connection will also be backed by long-trusted customer support, with a strong track record of reliability and unsurpassed service. Your connectivity is also supported at all times. HughesNet is delivered through several Network Operations Centers that are equipped to monitor network performance 24/7. You can also monitor your data usage and track Wi-Fi performance.

By inputting your account information and clicking the “Show My Options” button, you provide consent to CenturyLink to access your account information, including the services you subscribe to, to respond to your inquiry and inform you of CenturyLink’s products and services. You may deny us permission by proceeding no further and your denial will have no affect on your current services. Under federal law, it is your right and our duty to protect your account information.

After the power cord is plugged into the back of the modem, the modem will start testing it’s own hardware and software. Once your power light turns solid green, checkout the DSL light.

After the phone cord is plugged into the back of the modem, and your equipment is set up correctly, the modem will start searching for a DSL signal. Once your DSL light is solid green, check out the internet light. .

Troubleshooting: If the DSL light is off for more than 1 minute, there is a problem. Make sure your equipment is set up correctly and that your modem is not filtered. 2. Power cycle your modem. If you have another phone jack in the house connected to your internet line, try connecting the modem to the other phone jack. 4. If the problem continues, contact technical support.

Troubleshooting: If the DSL light blinks for more than 5 minutes, there is a problem. Make sure your equipment is set up correctly and that your modem is not filtered. 2. Power cycle your modem. If you have another phone jack in the house connected to your internet line, try connecting the modem to the other phone jack. 4. If the problem continues, contact technical support.

Troubleshooting: If the DSL light is red for more than 30 seconds, there is a problem. Make sure your equipment is set up correctly and that your modem is not filtered. 2. Power cycle your modem. If you have another phone jack in the house connected to your internet line, try connecting the modem to the other phone jack. 4. If the problem continues, contact technical support.

Make sure your equipment is set up correctly and that your modem is not filtered. 2. Power cycle your modem. If you have another phone jack in the house connected to your internet line, try connecting the modem to the other phone jack. 4. If the problem continues, contact technical support.

Troubleshooting: Connect a computer to your modem, open up a web browser and you should automatically be directed to the CenturyLink Activation page. If you get “Page cannot be displayed,” contact technical support.

Customer Information Close Window You must enter a zip code. A zipcode must contain five digits. Please enter a valid zip code. We had an unexpected error, please try again. Find the right options for your area by providing the zip code at your service address: SUBMIT Help me find my zip code As CenturyLink and Qwest merge companies, we are working hard to combine our systems. By supplying your service address zip code we will be able to get you to the right location. Thank you for your patience during the merger process.

You must enter a zip code. A zipcode must contain five digits. Please enter a valid zip code. We had an unexpected error, please try again. Find the right options for your area by providing the zip code at your service address: SUBMIT Help me find my zip code As CenturyLink and Qwest merge companies, we are working hard to combine our systems. By supplying your service address zip code we will be able to get you to the right location. Thank you for your patience during the merger process.

Off The DSL light will try to turn on after the Power light is solid green. Troubleshooting: If the DSL light is off for more than 1 minute, there is a problem. Make sure your equipment is set up correctly and that your modem is not filtered. 2. Power cycle your modem. If you have another phone jack in the house connected to your internet line, try connecting the modem to the other phone jack. 4. If the problem continues, contact technical support.

The DSL light will try to turn on after the Power light is solid green. Troubleshooting: If the DSL light is off for more than 1 minute, there is a problem. Make sure your equipment is set up correctly and that your modem is not filtered. 2. Power cycle your modem. If you have another phone jack in the house connected to your internet line, try connecting the modem to the other phone jack. 4. If the problem continues, contact technical support.

Green (blinking slow) The DSL light will blink slowly when searching for CenturyLink’s equipment. Troubleshooting: If the DSL light blinks for more than 5 minutes, there is a problem. Make sure your equipment is set up correctly and that your modem is not filtered. 2. Power cycle your modem. If you have another phone jack in the house connected to your internet line, try connecting the modem to the other phone jack. 4. If the problem continues, contact technical support.

The DSL light will blink slowly when searching for CenturyLink’s equipment. Troubleshooting: If the DSL light blinks for more than 5 minutes, there is a problem. Make sure your equipment is set up correctly and that your modem is not filtered. 2. Power cycle your modem. If you have another phone jack in the house connected to your internet line, try connecting the modem to the other phone jack. 4. If the problem continues, contact technical support.

Green (blinking fast) The DSL light will blink faster when it detects DSL equipment on the other end of the line and is trying to create connection. Troubleshooting: If the DSL light blinks for more than 5 minutes, there is a problem. Make sure your equipment is set up correctly and that your modem is not filtered. 2. Power cycle your modem. If you have another phone jack in the house connected to your internet line, try connecting the modem to the other phone jack. 4. If the problem continues, contact technical support.

The DSL light will blink faster when it detects DSL equipment on the other end of the line and is trying to create connection. Troubleshooting: If the DSL light blinks for more than 5 minutes, there is a problem. Make sure your equipment is set up correctly and that your modem is not filtered. 2. Power cycle your modem. If you have another phone jack in the house connected to your internet line, try connecting the modem to the other phone jack. 4. If the problem continues, contact technical support.

Red The DSL light will turn solid red if it can’t detect CenturyLink’s Internet equipment on the line. Troubleshooting: If the DSL light is red for more than 30 seconds, there is a problem. Make sure your equipment is set up correctly and that your modem is not filtered. 2. Power cycle your modem. If you have another phone jack in the house connected to your internet line, try connecting the modem to the other phone jack. 4. If the problem continues, contact technical support.

The DSL light will turn solid red if it can’t detect CenturyLink’s Internet equipment on the line. Troubleshooting: If the DSL light is red for more than 30 seconds, there is a problem. Make sure your equipment is set up correctly and that your modem is not filtered. 2. Power cycle your modem. If you have another phone jack in the house connected to your internet line, try connecting the modem to the other phone jack. 4. If the problem continues, contact technical support.

Off The internet light will only turn on after the DSL light is solid green. The internet light will be off if no PPP credentials are programmed in the modem or the modem is in transparent bridging mode. Troubleshooting: If the internet light is off for more than 30 seconds, there is a problem. Make sure your equipment is set up correctly and that your modem is not filtered. 2. Power cycle your modem. If you have another phone jack in the house connected to your internet line, try connecting the modem to the other phone jack. 4. If the problem continues, contact technical support.

The internet light will only turn on after the DSL light is solid green. The internet light will be off if no PPP credentials are programmed in the modem or the modem is in transparent bridging mode. Troubleshooting: If the internet light is off for more than 30 seconds, there is a problem. Make sure your equipment is set up correctly and that your modem is not filtered. 2. Power cycle your modem. If you have another phone jack in the house connected to your internet line, try connecting the modem to the other phone jack. 4. If the problem continues, contact technical support.

Amber The internet light will be solid amber if the modem is using CenturyLink’s default PPP credentials. You will not be able to get on the internet but you can access CenturyLink’s installer to set up your service and get online. Troubleshooting: Connect a computer to your modem, open up a web browser and you should automatically be directed to the CenturyLink Activation page. If you get “Page cannot be displayed,” contact technical support.

The internet light will be solid amber if the modem is using CenturyLink’s default PPP credentials. You will not be able to get on the internet but you can access CenturyLink’s installer to set up your service and get online. Troubleshooting: Connect a computer to your modem, open up a web browser and you should automatically be directed to the CenturyLink Activation page. If you get “Page cannot be displayed,” contact technical support.

Wi-Fi (/ˈwaɪfaɪ/)[1] is a family of wireless networking technologies, based on the IEEE 802.11 family of standards, which are commonly used for local area networking of devices and Internet access. Wi‑Fi is a trademark of the non-profit Wi-Fi Alliance, which restricts the use of the term Wi-Fi Certified to products that successfully complete interoperability certification testing.[2][3][4] As of 2010[update], the Wi-Fi Alliance consisted of more than 375 companies from around the world.[5] As of 2009[update], Wi-Fi-integrated circuit chips shipped approximately 580 million units annually.[6] Devices that can use Wi-Fi technologies include desktops and laptops, smartphones and tablets, smart TVs, printers, digital audio players, digital cameras, cars and drones.

Wi-Fi uses multiple parts of the IEEE 802 protocol family and is designed to seamlessly interwork with its wired sibling Ethernet. Compatible devices can network through a wireless access point to each other as well as to wired devices and the Internet. The different versions of Wi-Fi are specified by various IEEE 802.11 protocol standards, with the different radio technologies determining radio bands, and the maximum ranges, and speeds that may be achieved. Wi-Fi most commonly uses the 2.4 gigahertz (120 mm) UHF and 5 gigahertz (60 mm) SHF ISM radio bands; these bands are subdivided into multiple channels. Channels can be shared between networks but only one transmitter can locally transmit on a channel at any moment in time.

Wi-Fi’s wavebands have relatively high absorption and work best for line-of-sight use. Many common obstructions such as walls, pillars, home appliances etc. may greatly reduce range, but this also helps minimize interference between different networks in crowded environments. An access point (or hotspot) often has a range of about 20 metres (66 feet) indoors while some modern access points claim up to a 150-metre (490-foot) range outdoors. Hotspot coverage can be as small as a single room with walls that block radio waves, or as large as many square kilometres using many overlapping access points with roaming permitted between them. Over time the speed and spectral efficiency of Wi-Fi has increased. As of 2019, at close range, some versions of Wi-Fi running on suitable hardware, can achieve speeds of over 1 Gbit/s (gigabit per second).

Wi-Fi is potentially more vulnerable to attack than wired networks because anyone within range of a network with a wireless network interface controller can attempt access. Therefore, to connect to a Wi-Fi network, a user typically needs the network name (the SSID) and a password. The password is used to encrypt Wi-Fi packets so as to block eavesdroppers. Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) is a family of technologies created to protect information moving across Wi-Fi networks and includes solutions for personal and enterprise networks. As the security landscape has changed over time security features of WPA have included stronger protections and new security practices.

The first version of the 802.11 protocol was released in 1997, and provided up to 2 Mbit/s link speeds. This was updated in 1999 with 802.11b to permit 11 Mbit/s link speeds, and this proved popular.

A service set is the set of all the devices associated with a particular Wi-Fi network. Devices in a service set need not be on the same wavebands or channels. A service set can be local, independent, extended or mesh or a combination.

Equipment frequently support multiple versions of Wi-Fi. To communicate, devices must use a common Wi-Fi version. The versions differ between the radio wavebands they operate on, the radio bandwidth they occupy, the maximum data rates they can support and other details. Some versions permit the use of multiple antennas, which permits greater speeds as well as reduced interference.

Historically, equipment has simply listed the versions of Wi-Fi using the name of the IEEE standard that it supports. In 2018,[43] the Wi-Fi alliance standardized generational numbering so that equipment can indicate that it supports Wi-Fi 4 (if the equipment supports 802.11n), Wi-Fi 5 (802.11ac) and Wi-Fi 6 (802.11ax). These generations have a high degree of backward compatibility with previous versions. The alliance have stated that the generational level 4, 5, or 6 can be indicated in the user interface when connected, along with the signal strength.[44].

The full list of versions of Wi-Fi is: 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n (Wi-Fi 4[44]), 802.11h, 802.11i, 802.11-2007, 802.11-2012, 802.11ac (Wi-Fi 5[44]), 802.11ad, 802.11af, 802.11-2016, 802.11ah, 802.11ai, 802.11aj, 802.11aq, 802.11ax (Wi-Fi 6[44]), 802.11ay.

Wi-Fi provides service in private homes, businesses, as well as in public spaces. Wi-Fi hotspots may be set up either free-of-charge or commercially, often using a captive portal webpage for access. Organizations, enthusiasts, authorities and businesses, such as airports, hotels, and restaurants, often provide free or paid-use hotspots to attract customers, to provide services to promote business in selected areas.

Similarly, battery-powered routers may include a cellular Internet radio modem and Wi-Fi access point. When subscribed to a cellular data carrier, they allow nearby Wi-Fi stations to access the Internet over 2G, 3G, or 4G networks using the tethering technique. Many smartphones have a built-in capability of this sort, including those based on Android, BlackBerry, Bada, iOS (iPhone), Windows Phone and Symbian, though carriers often disable the feature, or charge a separate fee to enable it, especially for customers with unlimited data plans. “Internet packs” provide standalone facilities of this type as well, without use of a smartphone; examples include the MiFi- and WiBro-branded devices. Some laptops that have a cellular modem card can also act as mobile Internet Wi-Fi access points.

In the early 2000s, many cities around the world announced plans to construct citywide Wi-Fi networks. There are many successful examples; in 2004, Mysore (Mysuru) became India’s first Wi-Fi-enabled city. A company called WiFiyNet has set up hotspots in Mysore, covering the complete city and a few nearby villages.[48].

Officials in South Korea’s capital Seoul are moving to provide free Internet access at more than 10,000 locations around the city, including outdoor public spaces, major streets and densely populated residential areas. Seoul will grant leases to KT, LG Telecom, and SK Telecom. The companies will invest $44 million in the project, which was to be completed in 2015.[54].

Wi-Fi stations communicate by sending each other data packets: blocks of data individually sent and delivered over radio. As with all radio, this is done by the modulating and demodulation of carrier waves. Different versions of Wi-Fi use different techniques, 802.11b uses DSSS on a single carrier, whereas 802.11a, Wi-Fi 4, 5 and 6 use multiple carriers on slightly different frequencies within the channel (OFDM).[56][57].

As with other IEEE 802 LANs, stations come programmed with a globally unique 48-bit MAC address (often printed on the equipment) so that each Wi-Fi station has a unique address.[a] The MAC addresses are used to specify both the destination and the source of each data packet. Wi-Fi establishes link-level connections, which can be defined using both the destination and source addresses. On reception of a transmission, the receiver uses the destination address to determine whether the transmission is relevant to the station or should be ignored. A network interface normally does not accept packets addressed to other Wi-Fi stations.[b].

Channels are used half duplex and can be time-shared by multiple networks. When communication happens on the same channel, any information sent by one computer is locally received by all, even if that information is intended for just one destination.[c] The network interface card interrupts the CPU only when applicable packets are received: the card ignores information not addressed to it.[d] Use of the same channel also means that the data bandwidth is shared, such that, for example, available data bandwidth to each device is halved when two stations are actively transmitting.

A collision happens when two stations attempt to transmit at the same time. They corrupt transmitted data and require stations to re-transmit. The lost data and re-transmission reduces throughput. In the worst case, where multiple active hosts connected with maximum allowed cable length attempt to transmit many short frames, excessive collisions can reduce throughput dramatically. A scheme known as carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) governs the way the computers share the channel.

Spectrum assignments and operational limitations are not consistent worldwide: Australia and Europe allow for an additional two channels (12, 13) beyond the 11 permitted in the United States for the 2.4 GHz band, while Japan has three more (12–14). In the US and other countries, 802.11a and 802.11g devices may be operated without a license, as allowed in Part 15 of the FCC Rules and Regulations.

802.11a/h/j/n/ac/ax can use the 5 GHz U-NII band, which, for much of the world, offers at least 23 non-overlapping 20 MHz channels rather than the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band, where the channels are only 5 MHz wide. In general, lower frequencies have better range but have less capacity. The 5 GHz bands are absorbed to a greater degree by common building materials than the 2.4 GHz bands, and usually give shorter range.

As 802.11 specifications evolved to support higher throughput, the protocols have become much more efficient in their use of bandwidth. Additionally they have gained the ability to aggregate (or ‘bond’) channels together to gain still more throughput where the bandwidth is available. 802.11n allows for double radio spectrum/bandwidth (40 MHz- 8 channels) compared to 802.11a or 802.11g (20 MHz). 802.11n can also be set to limit itself to 20 MHz bandwidth to prevent interference in dense communities.[61] In the 5 GHz band, 20, 40, 80 and 160 MHz bandwidth signals are permitted with some restrictions, giving much faster connections.

Wi-Fi’s MAC and physical layer (PHY) specifications are defined by IEEE 802.11 for modulating and receiving one or more carrier waves to transmit the data in the infrared, and 2.4, 3.6, 5, or 60 GHz frequency bands. They are created and maintained by the IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Committee (IEEE 802). The base version of the standard was released in 1997, and has had many subsequent amendments. The standard and amendments provide the basis for wireless network products using the Wi-Fi brand. While each amendment is officially revoked when it is incorporated in the latest version of the standard, the corporate world tends to market to the revisions because they concisely denote capabilities of their products.[63] As a result, in the market place, each revision tends to become its own standard.

In addition to 802.11 the IEEE 802 protocol family has specific provisions for Wi-Fi. These are required because Ethernet’s cable-based media are not usually shared, whereas with wireless all transmissions are received by all stations within range that employ that radio channel. While Ethernet has essentially negligible error rates, wireless communication media are subject to significant interference. Therefore, accurate transmission is not guaranteed so delivery is therefore a best-effort delivery mechanism. Because of this, for Wi-Fi, the Logical Link Control (LLC) specified by IEEE 802.2 employs Wi-Fi’s media access control (MAC) protocols to manage retries without relying on higher levels of the protocol stack.[64].

For internetworking purposes Wi-Fi is usually layered as a link layer (equivalent to the physical and data link layers of the OSI model) below the internet layer of the Internet Protocol. This means that nodes have an associated internet address and, with suitable connectivity, this allows full Internet access.

In infrastructure mode, which is the most common mode used, all communications goes through a base station. For communications within the network, this introduces an extra use of the airwaves, but has the advantage that any two stations that can communicate with the base station can also communicate through the base station, which enormously simplifies the protocols.

Wi-Fi also allows communications directly from one computer to another without an access point intermediary. This is called ad hoc Wi-Fi transmission. Different types of ad hoc network exist. In the simplest case network nodes must talk directly to each other. In more complex protocols nodes may forward packets, and nodes keep track of how to reach other nodes, even if they move around.

This wireless ad hoc network mode has proven popular with multiplayer handheld game consoles, such as the Nintendo DS, PlayStation Portable, digital cameras, and other consumer electronics devices. Some devices can also share their Internet connection using ad hoc, becoming hotspots or “virtual routers”.[

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