Things You Think You Understand About Passive House But You Really Don’t

Passive house (German: Passivhaus) is a voluntary standard for energy efficiency in a building, which reduces the building’s ecological footprint. It results in ultra-low energy buildings that require little energy for space heating or cooling. A similar standard, MINERGIE-P, is used in Switzerland. The standard is not confined to residential properties; several office buildings, schools, kindergartens and a supermarket have also been constructed to the standard. Passive design is not an attachment or supplement to architectural design, but a design process that integrates with architectural design. Although it is principally applied to new buildings, it has also been used for refurbishments.

By late 2008, estimates of the number of Passivhaus buildings around the world ranged from 15,000 to 20,000 structures. As of August 2010, there were approximately 25,000 such certified structures of all types in Europe. The vast majority of passive structures have been built in German-speaking countries and Scandinavia.

Much of the early ‘Passive Houses’ were based on research and the experience of North American builders during the 1970s, who—in response to the oil embargo—sought to build homes that used very little or no energy. These designs often utilized the sun as a heat source and the term ‘passive house’ was possibly derived from the passive solar features of these houses, such as the Saskatchewan Conservation House and the Leger House in Pepperell, Massachusetts. An early book explaining the concepts was The Passive Solar Energy Book by Edward Mazria in 1979.

The eventual construction of four row houses (terraced houses or town homes) was designed for four private clients by the architectural firm Bott, Ridder and Westermeyer. The first Passivhaus residences were built in Darmstadt in 1990, and occupied by the clients the following year.

In September 1996, the Passivhaus-Institut was founded in Darmstadt to promote and control Passivhaus standards. As of 2010 an estimated 25,000+ Passivhaus structures have been built. Most are located in Germany and Austria, others in various countries worldwide.

In 1996, after the concept had been validated at the Institute in Darmstadt, with space heating at 90% less than that required for a standard new building at the time, the Economical Passive Houses Working Group was created. This group developed the planning package and initiated the production of the innovative components that had been used, notably the windows and the high-efficiency ventilation systems. Meanwhile, further passive houses were built in Stuttgart , Naumburg, Hesse, Wiesbaden, and Cologne .

The first certified passive house in the Antwerpen region of Belgium was built in 2010. In 2011 the city of Heidelberg in Germany initiated the Bahnstadt project, which was seen as the world’s largest passive house building area. A company in Qatar was planning the country’s first Passive House in 2013, the first in the region.

The world’s tallest passive-house is located in the Bolueta neighborhood in Bilbao, Spain. At 289 feet (88 m), it is the world’s tallest building certified under the standard in 2018. The $14.5 million, 171-unit development (including a nine-story companion to the high-rise) consists entirely of social housing.

Gaobeidian, China hosted the 23rd International Passive House Conference in 2019, and is home to Gaobeidian Railway City apartment complex is the world’s largest passive house project. China is taking a leadership role in passive house construction, with “73 different companies making windows to Passive House standards.”.

While some techniques and technologies were specifically developed for the Passive House standard, others, such as superinsulation, already existed, and the concept of passive solar building design dates back to antiquity. There was other previous experience with low-energy building standards, notably the German Niedrigenergiehaus (low-energy house) standard, as well as from buildings constructed to the demanding energy codes of Sweden and Denmark.

The specific heat load for the heating source at design temperature is recommended, but not required, to be less than 10 W/m² (3.17 btu/h·ft²).

If a building meets the Passivhaus standards, it does not need conventional heating systems, though some heating will still be required and most Passivhaus buildings include supplemental space heating. This is normally distributed through the low-volume heat recovery ventilation system that is required to maintain air quality, rather than by a conventional hydronic or high-volume forced-air heating system, as described in the space heating section below.

The PHIUS + 2015 Standard primarily focuses on reducing negative effects of building operations, for any type of building. This standard also uses climate data sets to determine specific building performance criteria for different regions. Such information is determined using metrics that represent a space where significant carbon and energy reduction overlap with cost-effectiveness. Overall, the PHIUS database includes more than 1000 climate data sets for North America. The Institute believes that this approach to the Standard is essential, as North America has variety of different climates and different passive measures may be more effective than others.

The standard is based on five principles: airtightness, ventilation, waterproofing, heating and cooling, and electrical loads. Within these principles, projects must pass building specified blower door, ventilation airflow, overall airflow, and electrical load tests; buildings must also achieve other measures such as low-emission materials, renewable energy systems, moisture control, outdoor ventilation, and energy efficient ventilation and space conditioning equipment. All buildings must also pass a quality assurance and quality control test – this is implemented to ensure that the building continues to adhere to the regional criteria set forth by the PHIUS’ climate data. These tests and analyses of operative conditions are performed by PHIUS raters or verifiers. These are accredited professionals from the PHIUS that are able to perform on-site testing and inspections to ensure that the newly constructed building is adhering to the construction plans, created energy models, and desired operating conditions.

In Passivhaus buildings, the cost savings from dispensing with the conventional heating system can be used to fund the upgrade of the building envelope and the heat recovery ventilation system. With careful design and increasing competition in the supply of the specifically designed Passivhaus building products, in Germany it is now possible to construct buildings for the same cost as those built to normal German building standards, as was done with the Passivhaus apartments at Vauban, Freiburg. On average passive houses are reported to be more expensive upfront than conventional buildings – 5% to 8% in Germany, 8% to 10% in UK and 5% to 10% in USA.

Passive solar building design and energy-efficient landscaping support the Passive house energy conservation and can integrate them into a neighborhood and environment. Following passive solar building techniques, where possible buildings are compact in shape to reduce their surface area, with principal windows oriented towards the equator – south in the northern hemisphere and north in the southern hemisphere – to maximize passive solar gain. However, the use of solar gain, especially in temperate climate regions, is secondary to minimizing the overall house energy requirements. In climates and regions needing to reduce excessive summer passive solar heat gain, whether from direct or reflected sources, brise soleil, trees, attached pergolas with vines, vertical gardens, green roofs, and other techniques are implemented.

Passive houses can be constructed from dense or lightweight materials, but some internal thermal mass is normally incorporated to reduce summer peak temperatures, maintain stable winter temperatures, and prevent possible overheating in spring or autumn before the higher sun angle “shades” mid-day wall exposure and window penetration. Exterior wall color, when the surface allows choice, for reflection or absorption insolation qualities depends on the predominant year-round ambient outdoor temperature. The use of deciduous trees and wall trellised or self attaching vines can assist in climates not at the temperature extremes.

Passivhaus buildings employ superinsulation to significantly reduce the heat transfer through the walls, roof and floor compared to conventional buildings. A wide range of thermal insulation materials can be used to provide the required high R-values (low U-values, typically in the 0.10 to 0.15 W/(m²·K) range). Special attention is given to eliminating thermal bridges.

In Sweden, to achieve passive house standards, the insulation thickness would be 33.5 centimetres (13.2 in) (0.10 W/(m²·K)) and the roof 50 centimetres (20 in) (U-value 0.066 W/(m²·K)).

To meet the requirements of the Passivhaus standard, windows are manufactured with exceptionally high R-values (low U-values, typically 0.85 to 0.70 W/(m²·K) for the entire window including the frame). These normally combine triple-pane insulated glazing (with a good solar heat-gain coefficient, low-emissivity coatings, sealed argon or krypton gas filled inter-pane voids, and ‘warm edge’ insulating glass spacers) with air-seals and specially developed thermal break window frames.

Building envelopes under the Passivhaus standard are required to be extremely airtight compared to conventional construction. They are required to meet either 0.60 ACH50 (air changes per hour at 50 pascals) based on the building’s volume, or 0.05 CFM50/sf (cubic feet per minute at 50 pascals, per square foot of building enclosure surface area). In order to achieve these metrics, recommended best practice is to test the building air barrier enclosure with a blower door at mid-construction if possible.

Passive house is designed so that most of the air exchange with exterior is done by controlled ventilation through a heat-exchanger in order to minimize heat loss (or gain, depending on climate), so uncontrolled air leaks are best avoided. Another reason is the passive house standard makes extensive use of insulation which usually requires a careful management of moisture and dew points. This is achieved through air barriers, careful sealing of every construction joint in the building envelope, and sealing of all service penetrations.

When ambient climate is not conducive, mechanical heat recovery ventilation systems, with a heat recovery rate of over 80% and high-efficiency electronically commutated motors (ECM), are employed to maintain air quality, and to recover sufficient heat to dispense with a conventional central heating system. Since passively designed buildings are essentially air-tight, the rate of air change can be optimized and carefully controlled at about 0.4 air changes per hour. All ventilation ducts are insulated and sealed against leakage.

Some Passivhaus builders promote the use of earth warming tubes. These are typically around 200 millimetres (7.9 in) in diameter, 40 metres (130 ft) long at a depth of about 1.5 metres (4.9 ft). These are buried in the soil to act as earth-to-air heat exchangers and pre-heat (or pre-cool) the intake air for the ventilation system. In cold weather, the warmed air also prevents ice formation in the heat recovery system’s heat exchanger. Concerns about this technique have arisen in some climates due to problems with condensation and mold.

In addition to using passive solar gain, Passivhaus buildings make extensive use of their intrinsic heat from internal sources—such as waste heat from lighting, white goods (major appliances) and other electrical devices (but not dedicated heaters)—as well as body heat from the people and other animals inside the building. This is due to the fact that people, on average, emit heat equivalent to 100 watts each of radiated thermal energy.

Instead, Passive houses sometimes have a dual purpose 800 to 1,500 watt heating and/or cooling element integrated with the supply air duct of the ventilation system, for use during the coldest days. It is fundamental to the design that all the heat required can be transported by the normal low air volume required for ventilation. A maximum air temperature of 50 °C (122 °F) is applied, to prevent any possible smell of scorching from dust that escapes the filters in the system.

The air-heating element can be heated by a small heat pump, by direct solar thermal energy, annualized geothermal solar, or simply by a natural gas or oil burner. In some cases a micro-heat pump is used to extract additional heat from the exhaust ventilation air, using it to heat either the incoming air or the hot water storage tank. Small wood-burning stoves can also be used to heat the water tank, although care is required to ensure that the room in which stove is located does not overheat.

The Passive house standards in Europe determine a space heating and cooling energy demand of 15 kWh/m2 (4,750 BTU/sq ft) pear year, and 10 W/m2 (3.2 Btu/h/sq ft) peak demand. In addition, the total energy to be used in the building operations including heating, cooling, lighting, equipment, hot water, plug loads, etc. is limited to 120 kWh/m2 (38,000 BTU/sq ft) of treated floor area per year.

To minimize the total primary energy consumption, the many passive and active daylighting techniques are the first daytime solution to employ. For low-light days, non-daylighted spaces, and nighttime, the use of creative-sustainable lighting design using low-energy sources can be used. Low-energy sources include ‘standard voltage’ compact fluorescent lamps, solid-state lighting with LED lamps, organic light-emitting diodes, PLED – polymer light-emitting diodes, ‘low voltage’ electrical filament-Incandescent light bulbs, compact Metal halide, Xenon, and Halogen lamps.

Solar powered exterior circulation, security, and landscape lighting – with photovoltaic cells on each fixture or connecting to a central Solar panel system, are available for gardens and outdoor needs. Low voltage systems can be used for more controlled or independent illumination, while still using less electricity than conventional fixtures and lamps. Timers, motion detection and natural light operation sensors reduce energy consumption, and light pollution even further for a Passivhaus setting.

A net zero-energy building (ZEB) is a building that over a year does not use more energy than it generates. The first 1979 Zero Energy Design building used passive solar heating and cooling techniques with air-tight construction and super insulation. A few ZEB’s fail to fully exploit more affordable conservation technology and all use onsite active renewable energy technologies like photovoltaic to offset the building’s primary energy consumption. Passive House and ZEB are complementary synergistic technology approaches, based on the same physics of thermal energy transfer and storage: ZEBs drive the annual energy consumption down to 0 kWh/m2 with help from on-site renewable energy sources and can benefit from materials and methods which are used to meet the Passive House demand constraint of 120 kWh/m² which will minimize the need for the often costly on-site renewable energy sources. Energy Plus houses are similar to both PassivHaus and ZEB but emphasize the production of more energy per year than they consume, e.g., annual energy performance of -25 kWh/m2 is an Energy Plus house.

In a tropical climate, it could be helpful for ideal internal conditions to use energy recovery ventilation instead of heat recovery ventilation to reduce the humidity load of ventilation on the mechanical dehumidification system. Although dehumidifiers might be used, heat pump hot water heaters also will act to cool and condense interior humidity (where it can be dumped into drains) and dump the heat into the hot water tank. Passive cooling, solar air conditioning, and other solutions in passive solar building design need to be studied to adapt the Passive house concept for use in more regions of the world.

All the keynote speakers at the 23rd International Passive House Conference in Gaobeidian unanimously agreed that putting “energy-efficiency first” was necessary to achieve the climate objectives of the Paris Agreement. For the first time, the Passive House Institute held its annual Conference in China and was a complete success. At the close of the Conference, the Institute in Darmstadt announced the “2020 Passive House Award”; the award ceremony for this architecture prize will take place in Berlin.

The two buildings are used completely differently, but they have one important thing in common: both buildings have achieved the EnerPHit standard after an energy retrofit. The Passive House Institute recently presented the certificate for the EnerPHit retrofit of a supermarket in the Austrian town of Prutz. About 7800 kilometres away, a clothing factory in Sri Lanka also received a certificate for a successful energy efficient modernisation. This pilot project in the tropical climate will be presented in October at the 23rd International Passive House Conference in China.

China is building on a vast scale. This fact becomes apparent in Gaobeidian, a city about a hundred kilometres south of the capital, Beijing. Here, the Passive House district Bahnstadt with over 20 high-rise buildings and many multi-family houses is currently under construction. This is where the Passive House Institute, together with its partners, is inviting everyone to attend the 23rd International Passive House Conference. The theme: “Passive House worldwide”. The Conference Programme is online, registration is now possible. The Passive House Institute offers a service webinar for questions regarding the conference.

In a new study, the Passive House Institute focuses on systems for vapour extractors, with the research report also resulting in a handbook for extractor hoods in Passive House buildings. This contains the key principles for a compatible system and its dimensioning. The study is now available as a free download. Research findings will be presented during the 23rd International Passive House Conference in China in autumn 2019.

Heidelberg doesn’t only have a beautiful historic city centre, it also boasts new urban areas that are worth seeing. The Bahnstadt in particular is striking: it is the largest Passive House district in the world. This makes Heidelberg an ideal venue for the Passive House conference “Achieve Better Buildings!”. Besides expert talks and practical workshops, the Passive House Institute will also offer many new features in Heidelberg. In addition, there will be special offers for participating municipalities and housing associations.

The largest Passive House residential district in the world is currently under construction in the Chinese city of Gaobeidian. Joined by other success stories such as “Bolueta” in the Spanish city of Bilbao, home of the world’s tallest Passive House high-rise building, and the first certified Passive House hospital being built in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The 23rd International Passive House Conference will reflect this global upswing in energy efficient construction. The organisers of the 2019 Conference invite all Passive House enthusiasts to join them in China. The call for papers is now open until December.

On hot summer days, Passive House buildings can be noticeably cooler than conventional buildings. The excellent level of thermal insulation keeps the heat out, coupled with effective strategies such as “passive night cooling” ensure comfort in the summer months. Providing proof of a pleasant indoor climate in summer is also one of the requirements for quality assurance for Passive House certification. “Numerous practical examples in different climate zones very clearly show that Passive House buildings have a pleasant and cool indoor climate during heat waves. However, professional planning is crucial for this”, says Zeno Bastian of the Passive House Institute.

The next International Passive House Conference is to be held in China. Energy efficient construction and retrofitting experts will convene in the Chinese city of Gaobeidian. This will be the first time that the renowned Conference will be held outside of Europe. “We are aware that this decision may be surprising to some. However, it is in China where the most construction activities are currently taking place,” explains Professor Wolfgang Feist. In addition, in Heidelberg, Germany, the “Achieve better buildings” Conference will take place next year.

The world climate conference in Bonn is an internationally recognised event; after all, it is about global climate protection. The UN has expressly mentioned Passive House buildings as a way to achieve significant energy savings in the building sector. The Passive House Institute from Darmstadt is also on the ground at the COP23 in Bonn. In addition, a delegation will be visiting a new Passive House student residence during the conference. As part of the Passive House Open Days, taking place at the same time as the climate conference, the opportunity to visit the student residence in Bonn will also be open to interested members of the public.

In view of the international climate objectives, providing both affordable and energy efficient living space has become a challenging task for cities and communities. Solutions for solving this dilemma will be discussed at the 22nd International Passive House Conference which will take place on 9 and 10 March 2018 in Munich. “Passive House – it’s worth it!” is the motto of this year’s Conference, which will be introducing many low-cost projects relating to energy efficient construction to the Passive House Standard. The Call for Papers has begun.

Changing habits requires us to think, and it isn’t easy. That’s what the participants of the 21st International Passive House Conference in Vienna were challenged with during the opening plenary. Breaking old habits and sharing resources fairly is necessary in order to reduce climate change to a tolerable level, as renowned climate researcher Helga Kromp-Kolb explained. “We have to manage with just this planet”, pointed out Professor Dr. Wolfgang Feist, Director of the Passive House Institute. Over 1000 participants from more than 50 countries travelled to Vienna in order to exchange information relating to energy efficient construction and learn more about international Passive House projects.

Wolfgang Erichson has been living in the Bahnstadt district of Heidelberg for three years and is very happy with his new place of residence. “It was pleasantly warm even on cold winter days,” says Erichson. On the fire station premises the city administration presented its energy monitoring results together with the Passive House Institute. The two most important outcomes: the consumption of heating energy in the Bahnstadt district was extremely low. Simultaneously, the total energy consumption was only a third of that of conventional housing complexes.

When it was inaugurated four years ago, the Raiffeisen Tower in Vienna was the first high-rise building in the world built to the Passive House Standard. Four years later, great progress has been made. This summer, in New York, around 350 students will move into a 26-storey dormitory, being built to the Passive House Standard. The structure of the 88 metre tall Passive House building “Bolueta” in Bilbao, Spain, will be completed within a few weeks. The architects of both these buildings will attend the 21st International Passive House Conference in April in Vienna to report on their exciting projects.

Vienna presents energy efficient construction ʻPassive House for allʼ is the theme for the 21st International Passive House Conference in Vienna. It’s all about energy efficient construction now and in the future. Vienna has committed itself to the Passive House Standard for many years, whether for kindergartens, student dorms, apartment buildings or offices. The conference programme will be rounded off with numerous workshops and excursions. The Passive House Conference takes place on 28 and 29 April 2017 at the Messe Wien Congress Center.

Pioneer project upgraded to Passive House Plus The world’s first Passive House building has increased its already high energy efficiency level and now relies on renewable energy. About a year ago, a photovoltaic system was installed on the roof of a row house built in 1991 in Darmstadt. Since then, this pioneering Passive House project has been producing its own electricity, thus fulfilling the criteria of a Passive House Plus building. The official certificate was recently issued.

Step-by-step towards EnerPHit Many home and building owners carry out renovations in a step-by-step manner. To avoid unnecessary additional costs, all planned measures for energy retrofits should be coordinated with each other before the first step is implemented. For this advanced planning, the EnerPHit Retrofit Plan has recently been developed by the Passive House Institute.

Smiling faces in Aberdeen The new Rocking Horse Nursery of the Scottish University of Aberdeen brings many happy faces to the children and their teachers. They attribute this as much to the comfortable indoor climate as to the constantly available fresh air. The nursery is the first building in Aberdeen built to the Passive House Standard. The Director of the Passive House Institute, Dr. Wolfgang Feist, recently presented the certificate to the developers and their team. From both the outside and inside, the single-storey nursery is a real eyecatcher with its wooden facade. Winters with long nights are common in Aberdeen. “The Passive House concept is the best solution for this situation”, says Dr.

The Passive House Standard combines maximum efficiency with optimal comfort. How this works, was demonstrated by experts from all over the world on 22 and 23 April during the International Passive House Conference in Darmstadt. This event also marked an anniversary: 25 years ago, the world’s first Passive House building was built just a few kilometres away from the congress centre – and a brand new study, presented at the Conference, proves the sustainability of the concept.

Curved façades, but a straightforward energy concept: a new office building in Frankfurt, Germany, clearly shows the potential of sustainable building design, with an architectural style that is not only elegant but also intelligent. The result is a 90 percent reduced heating demand and perceptibly increased comfort due to high indoor air quality. The building thus meets with the criteria for the Passive House Standard. Details were discussed during excursions as part of the International Passive House Conference 2016.

One of the world’s most sustainable buildings stands in Bavaria: as the first of its kind, a mixed residential and commercial project in the town of Kaufbeuren has met the criteria for a Passive House Premium certification. With a heating demand of only 8 kWh/m²a, it is uniquely energy efficient. At the same time, a 250 m² photovoltaic system on the roof produces renewable energy. The doors of this new building were open to the public on 14 and 15 November within the framework of the international Passive House Days 2015.

A completely modernized university building in Innsbruck, Austria demonstrates the energy saving potential available with refurbishments. Through integrated planning, the heating demand of the building was reduced from 180 kWh/m²a to just 21 kWh/m²a. The project thus meets the criteria of the EnerPHit Standard for retrofits with Passive House components – this standard, introduced by the Passive House Institute, is specially tailored to the particularities of retrofit projects. The certificate was presented at the official reopening.

The Passive House district of Bahnstadt in Heidelberg (Germany) has passed the test: according to a report on recent measurements, the values being strived for in relation to energy efficiency were met in full. In 2014, the average consumption of 1260 housing units with a living area of more than 75 000 m² was 14.9 kWh/(m²a). The statistically high number of projects built by different property developers and architects convincingly shows that a successful large- scale implementation of the Passive House Standard is possible.

A new book showcasing the winners and finalists of the international “Passive House Award” shows that energy efficient construction is not only profitable, it is also an enrichment for architecture. The book is available in a bound version and in digital form as an online flipbook. All of the award-winning buildings are presented with many photographs and illustrations. Technical details which are relevant for the energy balance are also explained in detail. In addition to the book, there is a poster exhibition on the Award.

Passive House planning has never been more convenient. The new designPH, a 3D model interface developed by the Passive House Institute, allows for graphic input of energy related design data. Details relating to the thermal building envelope and shading are entered automatically and can be optimised if necessary. The treated floor area can be gradually refined in order to simplify the design process. The results can be exported into the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) with just a few clicks.

A building standard that is truly energy efficient, comfortable, affordable and ecological at the same time. Passive House is not a brand name, but a construction concept that can be applied by anyone and that has stood the test of practice. Yet, a Passive House is more than just a low-energy building.

You may have been surprised by not finding ecological aspects mentioned at the very beginning of this article. Passive House buildings are eco-friendly by definition: They use extremely little primary energy, leaving sufficient energy resources for all future generations without causing any environmental damage. The additional energy required for their construction (embodied energy) is rather insignificant compared with the energy they save later on. This seems so obvious that there is no immediate need for additional illustrations. It is rather worth mentioning though, that the Passive House standard provides this level of sustainability for anyone wishing to build a new construction or renovating an older one at an affordable price – A contribution to protecting the environment. Be aware, that the principles are all published and the design tools are made available for all architects.

Measurements carried out in 114 Passive House apartments which were part of the CEPHEUS project showed average savings of approx. In other words, the Passive House is a “factor 10 house” which only uses one tenth of the energy used by average houses. Please click here to learn about the amount of primary energy this translates to. The passive house concept delivers – the savings are real, there is no performance gap.

6) Passives Houses mostly benefit regional manufacturers – everybody is invited to contribute. Products for Passive Houses are best practise products all around the world: Minimal U-values, superior window energy performance, maximum heat recovery rates. These products are mainly produced by small and medium enterprises on a local and regional level. This is adequate for passive components, because the resources are available anywhere. Insulation materials e.g. can be produced from a lot of very different resources – the main material always being just air included in small spaces, moving very slowly. The structural material can be wool, straw, wood fibers, paper, mineral wool, several types of plastics, foamed calcium silicate, foamed glass, … This is an open development and everybody is invited to contribute.

In terms of Airtightness, a maximum of 0.6 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals pressure (ACH50), as verified with an onsite pressure test (in both pressurized and depressurized states).

Thermal insulation All opaque building components of the exterior envelope of the house must be very well-insulated. For most cool-termperate climates, this means a heat transfer coefficient (U-value) of 0.15 W/(m²K) at the most, i.e. a maximum of 0.15 watts per degree of temperature difference and per square metre of exterior surface are lost.

Passive House windows The window frames must be well insulated and fitted with low-e glazings filled with argon or krypton to prevent heat transfer. For most cool-termperate climates, this means a U-value of 0.80 W/(m²K) or less, with g-values around 50% (g-value= total solar transmittance, proportion of the solar energy available for the room).

Ventilation heat recovery Efficient heat recovery ventilation is key, allowing for a good indoor air quality and saving energy. In Passive House, at least 75% of the heat from the exhaust air is transferred to the fresh air again by means of a heat exchanger.

Absence of thermal bridges All edges, corners, connections and penetrations must be planned and executed with great care, so that thermal bridges can be avoided. Thermal bridges which cannot be avoided must be minimised as far as possible.

The Passive House Standard stands for quality, comfort and energy efficiency. Passive Houses require very little energy to achieve a comfortable temperature year round, making conventional heating and air conditioning systems obsolete. While delivering superior levels of comfort, the Passive House Standard also protects the building structure.

Passive House certification criteria Passive House is the world‘s leading standard in energy efficient construction. The Passive House Standard stands for quality, comfort and energy efficiency. Passive Houses require very little energy to achieve a comfortable temperature year round, making conventional heating and air conditioning systems obsolete. While delivering superior levels of comfort, the Passive House Standard also protects the building structure. For a building to be considered a Passive House, it must meet the following criteria (for detailed criteria, please see www.passivehouse.com): Space Heating Demand not to exceed 15kWh annually OR 10W (peak demand) per square metre of usable living space Space Cooling Demand roughly matches the heat demand with an additional, climate-dependent allowance for dehumidification Primary Energy Demand not to exceed 120kWh annually for all domestic applications (heating, cooling, hot water and domestic electricity) per square meter of usable living space Airtightness maximum of 0.6 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals pressure (as verified with an onsite pressure test in both pressurised and depressurised states) Thermal Comfort Thermal comfort must be met for all living areas year-round with not more than 10% of the hours in any given year over 25°C* *For a complete overview of general quality requirements (soft criteria) see Passipedia. The definitive criteria for the certification of Passive House components and Passive Houses are set by the Passive House Institute under the direction of Dr. Passive House and EnerPHit retrofit building criteria Passive House Component certification criteria breakdown of “soft” criteria for Passive House buildings Planning Passive House buildings are planned, optimised and verified with the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP). Learn more Certification This checklist may make it easier for your building to achieve the Passive House Standard by outlining the most important steps in the process. View the checklist on Passipedia Advantages of certification While a Passive House building does not need to be certified to be considered a Passive House, certification provides an important and visible form of quality assurance.

Essentially, a passive house is designed to be extremely energy-efficient so that it doesn’t take a lot of power to heat or cool. To be designated as a passive house, a building must embody a set of specific best practices that seal it from outside temperatures while maintaining a stable inside temperature and high air quality.

These best practices were developed over decades of research conducted by the Passive House Institute (PHI) in Darmstadt, Germany. Now, they’re used by thousands of architects, developers, and contractors all over the globe. When you call a house a “passive house” you’re saying that it was built to the PHI’s rigorous standards for insulation and energy use.

“It’s sort of like building a thermos,” said Ken Levenson, “but it’s a thermos with really good ventilation.” When you want a space to naturally maintain its temperature—whether it’s as small as a thermos or as large as a home—you’re going to be following many of the same rules. Passive homes need to be air-tight, have continuous insulation, triple-paned windows, and a great system for controlling air quality.

Because passive houses are so energy-efficient, heating and cooling them costs dramatically less than in other homes. And because internal air temperature is so consistent, passive homes are more comfortable than a house where the inside temps oscillate between sweltering and freezing.

The air quality in a passive house will also be exceptional, eliminating any staleness or fumes. Air in a passive house is constantly circulated and filtered. Passive homes are also more resilient to power outages or other emergency situations. Even without electricity, the home will stay at a comfortable temperature for far longer than the average building, making it a popular choice for hospitals and senior residences.

But some of the benefits of living in a passive house are less quantitative. “On a cold winter day, you can sit right next to the window without a heater and without wearing two sweaters because the temperature of the window glass will be very close to the temperature of the room,” said Levenson. “Comfort is the first and foremost benefit, particularly in New York.”.

“It’s built like any other building,” Levenson told us. “Ninety-nine percent of a passive house is made with the same materials, methodologies, workers, and schedules as a non-passive house.”.

Generally, the larger the house, the less its passive elements will impact the overall budget. A massive project like the dorm for Cornell University’s Roosevelt Island Tech Campus will be 2 to 3 percent more expensive to achieve passive house standards. Levenson says that building a more normal-sized passive home will typically add between 5 to 10 percent to the construction budget. But it continues to get ever more affordable as research into new materials and efficiencies evolve.

“Find a passive house consultant or certified designer before you begin designing,” says Levenson. “The worst thing you can do is wait for the house to be designed and then try to add the passive elements on top.” For help finding someone in your area, check out the North American Passive House Network or PassiveHouse.com.

You hear about passive homes popping up everywhere from San Diego to Vienna, but what exactly is a passive house? And how are they built? Curbed spoke with passive house pros Ken Levenson of NY Passive House and San Francisco-based architect Bronwyn Barry to understand the green building trend that’s cutting carbon emissions and energy bills. What exactly is a passive house? “Passive house is the radical notion that you can reliably and consistently design a building that works for humans,” explained Barry. “It’s a comfort standard and a methodology.” Essentially, a passive house is designed to be extremely energy-efficient so that it doesn’t take a lot of power to heat or cool. To be designated as a passive house, a building must embody a set of specific best practices that seal it from outside temperatures while maintaining a stable inside temperature and high air quality. These best practices were developed over decades of research conducted by the Passive House Institute (PHI) in Darmstadt, Germany. Now, they’re used by thousands of architects, developers, and contractors all over the globe. When you call a house a “passive house” you’re saying that it was built to the PHI’s rigorous standards for insulation and energy use. How does a passive house work? “It’s sort of like building a thermos,” said Ken Levenson, “but it’s a thermos with really good ventilation.” When you want a space to naturally maintain its temperature—whether it’s as small as a thermos or as large as a home—you’re going to be following many of the same rules. Passive homes need to be air-tight, have continuous insulation, triple-paned windows, and a great system for controlling air quality. The home’s design also needs to eliminate a phenomenon called thermal bridging which occurs when the temperature of one material transfers to another through physical touch, like a room feeling cold in winter because the steel beam supporting the floor is touching the freezing brick on the facade. This thermal image by Sam McAfee of SGBuild shows the surface temperature of a row of Brooklyn townhouses during a winter night. The house that appears blue was renovated to passive house standards by Fabrica718, and this image makes clear that it is leaking much less interior heat than its neighbors. Photo courtesy Sam McAfee By thermally sealing off the interior of a space, a home’s internal temperatures are more stable by default. Implementing passive house techniques is enough to make a home 90 percent more energy efficient than the average house. Why would someone want a passive house? Because passive houses are so energy-efficient, heating and cooling them costs dramatically less than in other homes. And because internal air temperature is so consistent, passive homes are more comfortable than a house where the inside temps oscillate between sweltering and freezing. “Once you live in one and hang out in passive homes, it’s incredible to realize how uncomfortable we are in conventional buildings,” said Barry, admitting that one of her clients, a couple, told her that they stopped going on out-of-town trips because staying anywhere else felt miserable compared to their retrofitted passive house. The air quality in a passive house will also be exceptional, eliminating any staleness or fumes. Air in a passive house is constantly circulated and filtered. Passive homes are also more resilient to power outages or other emergency situations. Even without electricity, the home will stay at a comfortable temperature for far longer than the average building, making it a popular choice for hospitals and senior residences. But some of the benefits of living in a passive house are less quantitative. “On a cold winter day, you can sit right next to the window without a heater and without wearing two sweaters because the temperature of the window glass will be very close to the temperature of the room,” said Levenson. “Comfort is the first and foremost benefit, particularly in New York.” How is a passive house built? “It’s built like any other building,” Levenson told us. “Ninety-nine percent of a passive house is made with the same materials, methodologies, workers, and schedules as a non-passive house.” Most of the passive house work takes place in the design stage because every element has to work together to produce the benefits of the methodology. It doesn’t make sense to have a fresh air exchanger if the home’s windows leak. So generally it’s a matter of beefing up the insulation and thermal isolation in the design. Actually executing a passive house build is fairly straightforward. Also, a passive house doesn’t have to look like a hippy Earthship. The key principles of passivity can be tailored to fit very different styles of buildings from extremely modern homes to rustic cabins and historic apartment buildings. A rendering of Cornell Tech’s 26-story passive dorm designed by Handel Architects on New York City’s Roosevelt Island. Handel Architects How expensive is passive house construction? Generally, the larger the house, the less its passive elements will impact the overall budget. A massive project like the dorm for Cornell University’s Roosevelt Island Tech Campus will be 2 to 3 percent more expensive to achieve passive house standards. Levenson says that building a more normal-sized passive home will typically add between 5 to 10 percent to the construction budget. But it continues to get ever more affordable as research into new materials and efficiencies evolve. I want to build a passive house—what’s first? “Find a passive house consultant or certified designer before you begin designing,” says Levenson. “The worst thing you can do is wait for the house to be designed and then try to add the passive elements on top.” For help finding someone in your area, check out the North American Passive House Network or PassiveHouse.com.

How a small Texas city rewrote the rules of development Bastrop, Texas, found that updating the building code meant getting back on the grid. New modular prefab homes come in a wide range of sizes Plant Prefab’s latest ADUs were developed in response to temporary housing needs after the Woolsey Fire. Your Cyber Monday shopping is polluting this small town A new lawsuit highlights how e-commerce and the warehouse boom can concentrate truck traffic, and pollution, in rural areas. Late British architect Will Alsop’s only residential project hits the market Alsop was known for his playful style, which becomes clear the deeper you go into this house.

The Latest The Cyber Week furniture deals worth shopping now Sales on furniture, decor, and other home items are still happening all week. By Jenny Xie It’s not too late to jump on the Instant Pot bandwagon The cult favorite is back at its lowest price for Black Friday. By Jenny Xie Late British architect Will Alsop’s only residential project hits the market Alsop was known for his playful style, which becomes clear the deeper you go into this house. By Liz Stinson New modular prefab homes come in a wide range of sizes Plant Prefab’s latest ADUs were developed in response to temporary housing needs after the Woolsey Fire. By Liz Stinson 1 comment / new All the best Cyber Monday deals to score now Missed or skipped Black Friday sales? There are still huge savings to be had this week. By Megan Barber How a small Texas city rewrote the rules of development Bastrop, Texas, found that updating the building code meant getting back on the grid. By Patrick Sisson 2 comments / new.

The heat losses of the building are reduced so much that it hardly needs any heating at all. Passive heat sources like the sun, human occupants, household appliances and the heat from the extract air cover a large part of the heating demand. The remaining heat can be provided by the supply air if the maximum heating load is less than 10W per square metre of living space. If such supply-air heating suffices as the only heat source, we call the building a Passive House.

Passivhaus buildings achieve a 75% reduction in space heating requirements, compared to standard practice for UK new build. The Passivhaus standard therefore gives a robust method to help the industry achieve the 80% carbon reductions that are set as a legislative target for the UK Government. Passivhaus also applies to retrofit projects, achieving similar savings in space heating requirements.

Passivhaus certification provides a rigorous quality assurance process verified via independent testing. Certification is available for buildings, specific components, Designers/ Consultants & Tradespeople. The Passivhaus Institute has developed a series of certification processes to ensure the quality of any official Passivhaus buildings and practitioners:.

The idea of a Passivhaus began with a conversation in 1988 between a Swedish academic, Bo Adamson, and Dr Wolfgang Feist of the German Institute for Housing and the Environment. They developed their concept through a series of research projects, and the first experimental Passivhaus homes were built in 1990 in Darmstadt, about 27 miles south of Frankfurt in south-west Germany. The modern version of the Passivhaus developed from these prototypes.

In 1996 Dr Feist founded the Passivhaus Institute, a research institute dedicated to developing the Passivhaus and encouraging countries around the world to adopt its standards and technology. In 2001 Passivhaus buildings began appearing in other European countries, but the majority of Passivhaus buildings (around 25,000 in 2010) are still in the German-speaking countries and Scandinavia.

There’s even a Passivhaus houseboat in the Netherlands. It doesn’t need any dock connectors for energy or water; it gets energy from solar hot water collectors and processes water through a built-in water treatment system. It also has a heat recovery ventilation system, EPS insulation, and IKEA furnishings.

Some Passivhaus advocates also claim that you get more floor space because of the lack of radiators. This isn’t strictly true, as Passivhaus walls tend to be thicker to provide more insulation, which can actually reduce the floor space.

A superinsulated house should have very low heating needs and should mainly be heated by integral sources, such as the waste heat produced by lighting and electrical appliances or the body heat of residents, pets and visitors. According to Wikipedia, each person can emit heat equal to an average of 100 watts of radiated thermal energy.

The first superinsulated houses, which predated the Passivhaus movement, came in standard shapes with stud walls, but nowadays they take all kinds of shapes (e.g. earth-sheltered, earthship) and materials (including concrete, straw bales or insulated panels). Any regular watchers of aspirational design-and-build TV programmes will have seen all of these.

To retain as much heat as possible, Passivhaus windows are made of triple-pane insulated glazing, and the gaps between the glass panes are sealed and filled with argon or krypton gas. Their technology also includes a ‘low-emissivity’ coating, ‘warm edge’ glass spacers and specially developed thermally broken window frames.

If you want your superinsulated home to comply fully with Passivhaus specifications, you’ll need to select furniture and interior finishes carefully to make sure you’re minimising air pollution indoors. That means checking for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when choosing paint, for example. If you can’t avoid all VOCs, you’ll need to add plants or even a water feature to your interior decor, and also open the windows briefly at intervals.

No, it’s not true. In summer, a Passivhaus needs to have openable windows, to release any heat that’s accumulated during the day. In winter, it’s still possible to open the windows but, depending on where the house is sited, the air might feel fresher inside than out, so residents prefer to keep them shut.

The Royal Institue of British Architects has awarded the 2019 RIBA Stirling Prize for UK’s best new building to a Passive House development. Goldsmith Street, developed by Mikhail Riches with Cathy Hawley, comprises 100 highly energy-efficient Passive House homes in the city of Norwich. The low energy consumption not only saves the residents a lot of money but also makes the houses highly sustainable and climate-friendly. Stylistically, the design pays homage to Norwich’s history while embracing the future. It combines the creamy clay bricks of Victorian terrace houses with modern Passive House building techniques. Having RIBA award this project with their esteemed prize is a testament to the tradition-steeped organisation’s transition into one of the most progressive and sustainably-minded architectural associations. Photo Credit: Tim Crocker.

In a new study, the Passive House Institute focuses on systems for vapour extractors, with the research report also resulting in a handbook for extractor hoods in Passive House buildings. This contains the key principles for a compatible system and its dimensioning. Research findings will be presented during the Passive House Conference “Achieve Better Buildings!” at the begining of May in Heidelberg. The Institute will also present the findings at the 23rd International Passive House Conference in China in autumn 2019.

Established by the Passivhaus Institute in Darmstadt, Germany in 1996, “passive house” was one of the pioneering concepts for building low-energy houses and is today a leading building standard. The design is focused on making best use of the “passive” influences in a building – like sunshine, shading and ventilation – rather than active heating and cooling systems such as air conditioning and central heating. Coupled with very high levels of insulation and airtightness, this makes it possible for a passive home to use 90 percent less energy1 than a typical dwelling.

Very high levels of insulation are a key element of passive construction, which keeps heat losses so low that a house can be kept warm either without heating or just by preheating the fresh air entering rooms. Passive buildings feature a continuous insulating envelope like a warm coat around the building, and an airtight layer.

Therefore, we have created a unique wall system combining stone wool columns, ROCKWOOL insulation and airtight OSB4 boards on the inside. Rockzero is a highly energy efficient wall system that also offers fire protection and superior indoor comfort. You can learn more about Rockzero here!.

Very high levels of insulation are a key element of passive construction, which keeps heat losses so low that a house can be kept warm either without heating or just by preheating the fresh air entering rooms. Passive buildings feature a continuous insulating envelope like a warm coat around the building, and an airtight layer. ROCKWOOL’s non-combustible stone wool insulation is ideal for reaching passive house standards because it fits easily into the building and stays in shape over time, lets vapour pass through, is long-lasting and fire-safe. Therefore, we have created a unique wall system combining stone wool columns, ROCKWOOL insulation and airtight OSB4 boards on the inside. Rockzero is a highly energy efficient wall system that also offers fire protection and superior indoor comfort. You can learn more about Rockzero here! 1 “25 Years Passive House – Interview with Dr. Wolfgang Feist”, Passive House Institute.

Read more on passive buildings Thought Leadership Passive House Passive house designs enable us to build houses that save energy, improve air quality and reduce noise pollution. Read more Passive House Passive House Case Studies Case studies showcase real-life examples of how we can build Passive House buildings and near zero energy homes. Read more Thought Leadership Welcome to the zero-energy house Built with the right techniques, a home can produce as much energy as it uses. Read more The pioneering way to build nearly zero-energy homes Rockzero system Introducing our latest innovation, Rockzero: a pioneering new wall system that integrates the natural benefits of stone wool insulation with the structural support of the home. It’s revolutionising the way homes are built.

Thought Leadership Passive House Passive house designs enable us to build houses that save energy, improve air quality and reduce noise pollution. Read more Passive House Passive House Case Studies Case studies showcase real-life examples of how we can build Passive House buildings and near zero energy homes. Read more Thought Leadership Welcome to the zero-energy house Built with the right techniques, a home can produce as much energy as it uses. Read more The pioneering way to build nearly zero-energy homes Rockzero system Introducing our latest innovation, Rockzero: a pioneering new wall system that integrates the natural benefits of stone wool insulation with the structural support of the home. It’s revolutionising the way homes are built.

It has been ten years since the UK’s first Passive House (or Passivhaus) building. Since then, uptake of its ultra-low-energy design approach has increased at around 20% annually, with over 1400 certified Passive House ‘units’ completed to date.

The vast majority of Passive House buildings in the UK are dwellings commissioned by housing associations and other registered social landlords, or are in locations where the standard has been championed by the local authority. Among private dwellings for ecologically concerned clients, Passive House tends to be the preferred model.

South suggests that the biggest cost for most consultants will be time. The not-for-profit AECB course, for instance, requires nine days out of the office, but is split into modules that can be taken separately, with some study time on top. There are early-bird and membership deals that can bring down the fee.

The Passivhaus Trust is an independent, non-profit organisation that provides leadership in the UK for the adoption of the Passivhaus standard and methodology. Passivhaus is the leading international low energy, design standard. Over 65,000 buildings have been designed, built and tested to this standard worldwide.

But in a passive house, these winter woes (or summer highs) are a thing of the past. The temperature is comfortable and consistent from room to room — no extra layers or thermostat subterfuge required. In fact, there’s no thermostat at all, because a passive house maintains its comfy conditions without a conventional furnace, boiler or HVAC system. So what exactly is a passive house and how is it different from a traditional home or other alternatively powered homes?.

Introducing VELUX Modular Skylights, the perfect way to open up large rooms in your home to create a light, bright and spacious environment. This solution can be opened automatically for ventilation and the addition of electrically operated roller blinds offers greater light and energy control.

VELUX Modular Skylights mark a shift in the evolution of commercial daylighting. For the first time the market is offered a fully prefabricated skylight concept. Made from a composite material that ensures excellent energy performance, thermal stability and high strength, the product was elegantly designed in collaboration with Foster + Partners.

Building inspiration is your hub for ideas and advice to make your house a home. From practical advice for your extension or loft conversion, design and decorating ideas, top tips from expert architects and builders, plus renovation case studies from Building Inspiration readers.

The roof window itself has a Uw 0,51 W/(m2K) (EN ISO 12567-2), which is the best on the market. The roof window is powered by the sun. For increased comfort, solar-powered shutters or awning blinds can be added. Our unique touch-screen control pad lets you operate the complete solution in a convenient and intuitive way.

Modular Skylights for your home Introducing VELUX Modular Skylights, the perfect way to open up large rooms in your home to create a light, bright and spacious environment. This solution can be opened automatically for ventilation and the addition of electrically operated roller blinds offers greater light and energy control. VMS for your home.

Modular Skylights for commercial buildings VELUX Modular Skylights mark a shift in the evolution of commercial daylighting. For the first time the market is offered a fully prefabricated skylight concept. Made from a composite material that ensures excellent energy performance, thermal stability and high strength, the product was elegantly designed in collaboration with Foster + Partners. Go to VELUX commercial.

Building Inspiration Building inspiration is your hub for ideas and advice to make your house a home. From practical advice for your extension or loft conversion, design and decorating ideas, top tips from expert architects and builders, plus renovation case studies from Building Inspiration readers. Building Inspiration is your hub for ideas and advice to make your house a home. From practical advice for your extension or loft conversion, design and decorating ideas, top tips from expert architects and builders, plus renovation case studies from Building Inspiration readers – there’s inspiration for every step. Go to Building Inspiration.

Building inspiration is your hub for ideas and advice to make your house a home. From practical advice for your extension or loft conversion, design and decorating ideas, top tips from expert architects and builders, plus renovation case studies from Building Inspiration readers. Building Inspiration is your hub for ideas and advice to make your house a home. From practical advice for your extension or loft conversion, design and decorating ideas, top tips from expert architects and builders, plus renovation case studies from Building Inspiration readers – there’s inspiration for every step.

Building Inspiration is your hub for ideas and advice to make your house a home. From practical advice for your extension or loft conversion, design and decorating ideas, top tips from expert architects and builders, plus renovation case studies from Building Inspiration readers – there’s inspiration for every step.

We are introducing GGU 008230, which is ideal for situations where Passive House-certified building components are required. This is the first and only roof window on the market certified in class A for Passive House building constructions in cold climate regions* as shown in the geographical map above. This roof window consists of a triple outer-glazing plus an additional inner double-glazing.The roof window itself has a Uw 0,51 W/(m2K) (EN ISO 12567-2), which is the best on the market. The roof window is powered by the sun. For increased comfort, solar-powered shutters or awning blinds can be added. Our unique touch-screen control pad lets you operate the complete solution in a convenient and intuitive way. * requires flush installation with either EDJ 2000 or EDN 2000 flashings. Benefits Energy saving – best on the market Increased comfort with use of the pre-defined ventilation programs Don’t worry about the rain – rain sensor Certified VELUX roof window for Passive House constructions Download certificate.

We are introducing GGU 008230, which is ideal for situations where Passive House-certified building components are required. This is the first and only roof window on the market certified in class A for Passive House building constructions in cold climate regions* as shown in the geographical map above. This roof window consists of a triple outer-glazing plus an additional inner double-glazing.The roof window itself has a Uw 0,51 W/(m2K) (EN ISO 12567-2), which is the best on the market. The roof window is powered by the sun. For increased comfort, solar-powered shutters or awning blinds can be added. Our unique touch-screen control pad lets you operate the complete solution in a convenient and intuitive way. * requires flush installation with either EDJ 2000 or EDN 2000 flashings.

White polyurethane 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 ThermoTechnologyTM ThermoTechnologyTM Experience a more comfortable home and lower energy bills with VELUX ThermoTechnology™. Innovative use of high performance materials in the window construction provides excellent energy efficiency, insulation and an airtight seal. Look for the ThermoTechnology™ seal for your guarantee of excellent energy efficiency. White polyurethane 2 Triple outer-glazing Triple outer-glazing This window comes with an advanced triple outer-glazing plus an additional inner double-glazing – providing extreme heat insulation. You will therefore experience a warmer home and lower energy bills. The glazing on GGU 008230 is specially designed for Passive House constructions. 3 Solar powered operations Solar powered operations The roof window comes with Solar-powered remote control that makes opening and closing the window effortless and energy-saving. Poor indoor air quality seriously affects our general well-being, but a few daily routines can have a great effect on your indoor comfort. Let the control pad give you a helping hand. Simply use the pre-defined ventilation programs and enjoy automatic airing without having to think about it. 4 Rain Sensor Rain Sensor All our solar powered roof windows come with a rain sensor. This means that the window automatically closes when it starts to rain – so you never have to wo

Reference

Beattie Passive | Delivering Passivhaus homes with offsite .. 2019, Viewed 4 December 2019, <http://www.beattiepassive.com/>.

Eight Passive House Myths BUSTED | iPHA Blog 2019, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://blog.passivehouse-international.org/eight-passive-house-myths-busted/>.

Inside the UK’s first passive house in Camden: super energy .. 2019, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://www.homesandproperty.co.uk/luxury/property/the-uks-first-passive-house-super-energyefficient-with-fuel-bills-less-than-100-a-year-a100331.html>.

International Passive House Association 2019, Criteria, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://www.passivehouse-international.org/index.php?page_id=150>.

International Passive House Association 2019, International Passive House Association | Index, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://passivehouse-international.org/>.

Passive House Institute 2019, Passive House Institute, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://passivehouse.com/>.

Passive House Institute 2019, Passive House requirements, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://passiv.de/en/02_informations/02_passive-house-requirements/02_passive-house-requirements.htm>.

Passive House and low energy dwellings | Zehnder Group UK 2019, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://www.zehnder.co.uk/products-and-systems/comfortable-indoor-ventilation/passive-house-and-low-energy-dwellings>.

Passive house 2019, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passive_house>.

Passive house construction: Everything you need to know 2019, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://www.curbed.com/2016/9/6/12583346/passive-house-construction-guide>.

Passivhaus Design | Passive house show home | Potton 2019, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://www.potton.co.uk/self-build-resources/passivhaus>.

Passivhaus Trust 2019, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://www.passivhaustrust.org.uk/>.

Sheri Koones 2019, Passive House – Building The Efficient Home Of The Future, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://www.forbes.com/sites/sherikoones/2019/06/06/passive-house–building-the-efficient-home-of-the-future/>.

The benefits of becoming a Passive House designer 2019, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://www.architecture.com/knowledge-and-resources/knowledge-landing-page/the-benefits-of-becoming-a-passive-house-designer>.

The ultimate guide to a Passive Houses | OVO Energy 2019, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://www.ovoenergy.com/guides/energy-guides/passive-house.html>.

VELUX GGU Passive House roof window 2019, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://www.velux.co.uk/products/roof-windows/special-function/passive-house-roof-windows>.

Vallda Heberg: a Swedish certified passive house residential area .. 2019, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://www.buildup.eu/en/practices/cases/vallda-heberg-swedish-certified-passive-house-residential-area>.

What is Passivhaus? 2019, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://passivhaustrust.org.uk/what_is_passivhaus.php>.

What is a Passive House?  2019, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://passipedia.org/basics/what_is_a_passive_house>.

What is a Passive House? | Definition, principles & requirements 2019, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://www.rockwoolgroup.com/our-thinking/energy-efficiency/what-is-a-passive-house/>.

What is a passive house? | HowStuffWorks 2019, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://home.howstuffworks.com/home-improvement/construction/green/what-is-passive-house.htm>.

World’s tallest Passive House building opens 2019, Viewed 4 December 2019, <https://www.burohappold.com/news/worlds-tallest-passive-house-building-opens/>.

Leave a Reply